David Butterfield

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Glutamate transporters are involved in the maintenance of synaptic glutamate concentrations. Because of its potential neurotoxicity, clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft may be critical for neuronal survival. Inhibition of glutamate uptake from the synapse has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, glutamate uptake(More)
Amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) is heavily deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Free-radical oxidative stress, particularly of neuronal lipids, proteins and DNA, is extensive in those AD brain areas in which Abeta is abundant. Recent research suggests that these observations might be linked, and it is postulated that Abeta-induced(More)
At the end of the 1980s, it was clearly demonstrated that cells produce nitric oxide and that this gaseous molecule is involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems, rather than simply being a toxic pollutant. In the CNS, nitric oxide has an array of functions, such as the regulation of synaptic plasticity, the sleep-wake(More)
The amyloid beta-peptide (A beta)-associated free radical oxidative stress model for neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain predicts that neuronal protein oxidation is a consequence of A beta-associated free radicals [8]. In this study we have used both in vitro and in vivo models of beta-amyloid (A beta) toxicity to detect free radical induced(More)
Alzheimer's disease, the major dementing disorder of the elderly that affects over 4 million Americans, is related to amyloid beta-peptide, the principal component of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease brain. Oxidative stress, manifested by protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, among other alterations, is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease(More)
Amyloid beta-peptide (A(beta)) is heavily deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and free radical oxidative stress, particularly of neuronal lipids and proteins, is extensive. Recent research suggests that these two observations may be linked by A(beta)-induced oxidative stress in AD brain. This review summarizes current knowledge on(More)
The analytical power of environmental DNA sequences for modeling microbial ecosystems depends on accurate assessments of population structure, including diversity (richness) and relative abundance (evenness). We investigated both aspects of population structure for microbial communities at two neighboring hydrothermal vents by examining the sequences of(More)
Oxidative stress induced by amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) has been implicated in the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. However, the mechanism by which the predominant form of A beta found in AD brains, A beta(1--42), causes oxidative stress and neurotoxicity remains unknown. Numerous laboratories have used the smaller 11-amino(More)
The serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field is a remarkable submarine ecosystem in which geological, chemical, and biological processes are intimately interlinked. Reactions between seawater and upper mantle peridotite produce methane- and hydrogen-rich fluids, with temperatures ranging from <40 degrees to 90 degrees C at pH 9 to 11, and carbonate(More)
In this study we used immunohistochemistry and two-dimensional fingerprinting of oxidatively modified proteins (two-dimensional Oxyblot) together to investigate protein carbonyl formation in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Increased protein oxidation was detected in sections from the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyri of(More)