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N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) contribute to synaptic plasticity underlying learning in a variety of brain systems. Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of previously learned fear, appears to require NMDAR activation in the amygdala. However, it is unclear whether amygdala NMDARs are required for the acquisition of(More)
BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) effectively treat various anxiety disorders, although symptoms of anxiety are often exacerbated during early stages of treatment. We previously reported that acute treatment with the SSRI citalopram enhances the acquisition of auditory fear conditioning, which is consistent with the initial(More)
Although different people respond differently to threatening events, animal research on the neural basis of fear tends to focus on typical responses. Yet there are substantial individual differences between animals exposed to identical behavioral procedures. In an effort to begin to understand the nature and causes of fear variability and resilience, we(More)
Fear extinction refers to the ability to adapt as situations change by learning to suppress a previously learned fear. This process involves a gradual reduction in the capacity of a fear-conditioned stimulus to elicit fear by presenting the conditioned stimulus repeatedly on its own. Fear extinction is context-dependent and is generally considered to(More)
BACKGROUND Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with enhanced noradrenergic activity. Animal and human studies demonstrate that noradrenergic stimulation augments consolidation of fear learning. Retrieval of well-established memories by presenting a learned fear cue triggers reconsolidation processes during which memories may be updated,(More)
Increases in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) incidence and mortality rates during the past few decades remain largely unexplained. Studies suggest that organochlorine pesticides may contribute to an increased risk of NHL. In 1974, serum samples were obtained from 25,802 participants in the Campaign Against Cancer and Stroke in Washington County, Maryland(More)
BACKGROUND The lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) is a crucial part of the neural circuitry underlying the formation and storage of memories established through fear conditioning. To investigate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) contributions to fear memory in LA, the present experiments tested the effects of intra-LA infusions on the formation and(More)
Fear extinction, which involves learning to suppress the expression of previously learned fear, requires N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and is mediated by the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Like other types of learning, extinction involves acquisition and consolidation phases. We recently demonstrated that NR2B-containing(More)
Beta-adrenergic receptors (βARs) have long been associated with fear disorders and with learning and memory. However, the contribution of these receptors to Pavlovian fear conditioning, a leading behavioral model for studying fear learning and memory, is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of βAR activation in(More)