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We describe the Networked Physical World system, a ubiquitous computing system that integrates the physical world with the virtual world. The instrumentation of non-electronic devices, such as cans of soda and boxes of detergent, with inexpensive, low functionality computing devices enables the virtual world to sense and identify physical objects. The(More)
Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems occupy an increasingly important role in asset-tracking and inventory management systems. Large silicon vendors now produce RFID systems, lowering costs while increasing supply. RFID systems could become inexpensive and offer enough performance to satisfy a wide range of commercial applications, one day(More)
From the 1940s into the early 1960s, hundreds of scientists and engineers worldwide pursued efforts in microcircuitry-miniaturized, integrated electronic circuits. By tracing the diverse activities and alternatives they explored-from early printed wiring to semiconductor integrated circuit efforts-this article provides the first comprehensive overview of(More)
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