David Bolton

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Debate persists about the effectiveness of poststroke behavioral interventions for progress toward motor recovery. The current meta-analysis assessed the effect of electromyogram (EMG)-triggered neuromuscular stimulation on arm and hand functions. Computer searches of PubMed and Cochran databases, as well as hand searches of reference lists identified seven(More)
Availability of fingertip touch onto a stable surface reduces body sway for subjects standing with eyes closed. This is largely associated with sensory feedback from the fingertip when mechanical load is limited. Here, it is possible that the central nervous system facilitates cortical sensory processing to augment feedback to control upright stance. To(More)
Damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) impairs gating of irrelevant sensory information at early cortical processing stages. We investigated how transient inhibition of DLPFC impacts early event-related potentials (ERPs) arising from relevant or irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli to the fingertips. Specifically, we hypothesized that suppression(More)
The ease with which we avoid falling down belies a highly sophisticated and distributed neural network for controlling reactions to maintain upright balance. Although historically these reactions were considered within the sub cortical domain, mounting evidence reveals a distributed network for postural control including a potentially important role for the(More)
In walking quadrupeds the alternating activity pattern of antagonistic leg muscles and the coordination between legs is orchestrated by central pattern generating networks within the spinal cord. These networks are activated by tonic input from the reticular formation in the brainstem. Under more challenging conditions, such as walking on a horizontal(More)
The authors provide epidemiological estimates of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and associated mental disorders in Northern Ireland (NI) with a focus on the impact of civil conflict using data from the NI Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), a representative epidemiological survey of adults in NI. Overall 60.6% had a lifetime traumatic event,(More)
To delineate the role of cutaneous feedback from the paws in the regulation of balance during walking, we compared the corrective responses of cats to lateral support surface translation before and after cutaneous denervation of the hindpaws. In addition, we compared characteristics of undisturbed walking before and after denervation. Electromyographic and(More)
The introduction of brain stimulation research techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has greatly advanced the understanding of the somatosensory system in humans. Over the last several years, several studies have focused on applying TMS in a variety of contexts to alter transiently the excitability of the somatosensory cortex or regions(More)
Paragon is a notation for specifying object behaviours using sets of rewrite rules, where rewriting is controlled by synchronous and asynchronous message passing, and where objects may be dynamically created as a rewriting side-eeect. This paper overviews Paragon, and introduces a simple classiication scheme for analysis of Paragon speciications.(More)
The objective of this study was to estimate the economic costs of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among the Northern Ireland (NI) adult population. The authors present a prevalence-based, bottom-up study based primarily on data from 1,986 participants in the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS). Both direct costs of treatment and(More)