David Blank

Feng Xu2
Wei Liu2
Kathreen Ruckstuhl2
2Feng Xu
2Wei Liu
2Kathreen Ruckstuhl
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We conducted our study in Ili depression, south-eastern Kazakhstan during 1981–1989 to investigate how group sizes and group class frequencies change with increasing population densities in goitered gazelles. In addition, we compared our study to data on group size and group class frequency of various goitered gazelle populations in Kazakhstan with very(More)
Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance(More)
The mother-offspring social unit is a universal feature in the social life of all mammals and nursing is the most direct and vital component of maternal investment in young. Living in diverse environments, various ungulate species have different strategies for rearing offspring, from bearing a single, relatively large newborn and supplying only limited(More)
We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such(More)
Apart from the purely physiological excretion function, many mammals use their own urine and feces as reliable, odoriferous signals to indicate territorial occupancy. Marking is especially important for many antelopes, as territoriality is linked to reproductive success in these species. Scent marking with excrement, though, imposes physiological(More)
We studied object-horning behaviour in goitered gazelles in the natural, arid environment of Kazakhstan over a 6-year period. We found that object-horning was used by adult males mostly as a threat display during territorial conflicts. Therefore object-horning was observed most frequently in territorial single males during the rut in November-December.(More)
In many polygynous ruminant species, males decrease their food intake considerably during the rut. To explain this phenomenon of rut-reduced hypophagia, two main hypotheses, the Foraging-Constraint Hypothesis and Energy-Saving Hypothesis, have been proposed. In our research, we assessed the behavioral strategy of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa)(More)
We studied the sex ratio of goitered gazelles in the naturally arid environment of Kazakhstan over a 6-year period. The main methods in our study were taking transect counts and focal observations. The sex ratio of adult goitered gazelles has demonstrated a female bias due to a much higher mortality of males of all ages, especially during years with(More)
Fertile islands are created and maintained by a combination of physical and biologically mediated processes. Plants have been shown to be very important in the formation of fertile islands, and recent research indicates that the activities of burrowing animals have a significant influence on the physiochemical properties of soil that can promote the(More)