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We conducted our study in Ili depression, south-eastern Kazakhstan during 1981–1989 to investigate how group sizes and group class frequencies change with increasing population densities in goitered gazelles. In addition, we compared our study to data on group size and group class frequency of various goitered gazelle populations in Kazakhstan with very(More)
Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that(More)
Predation is usually the primary cause of infant death among ungulate species, with the annual variation in the survival of neonates over their first summer a major factor in the population dynamics of many ungulates. Consequently, the maternal rearing strategy of a species is crucial for its reproductive success. Since the roles mothers and fawns play in(More)
Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance(More)
In ungulates, predation is often a major cause of infant mortality and likely plays an important role in shaping maternal care strategies that favor progeny survival. The anti-predator strategies of ungulates can be broadly categorized into two groups, hiding infants and following infants. We studied the maternal behavioral strategies of goitered gazelle,(More)
Aggression serves a great variety of social functions, one of which is protection of individual territories from intruders. Territorial males of many antelope species show aggressive noncontact displays, and only rarely fight. It has been suggested that ungulate males tend to have more frequent and longer aggressive interactions with rivals of similar age(More)
Suckling behavior adaptations are components of a reproductive strategy for successful breeding and offspring survival. In ungulates, maternal care of their young can be roughly classified into two dichotomous strategies: “hiding” and “following.” Since goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) are a hiding species, we predicted that during the hiding(More)
The mother-offspring social unit is a universal feature in the social life of all mammals and nursing is the most direct and vital component of maternal investment in young. Living in diverse environments, various ungulate species have different strategies for rearing offspring, from bearing a single, relatively large newborn and supplying only limited(More)
Aggression in ungulates is a very common behavior which serves a great variety of social functions, the most important of which is territorial protection from intruders. Typically during the rut, territorial males in Antilopinae species have access to mating females, and territoriality leads to a drastic change in the males' lifestyle as they spend most of(More)