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We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats is linked to decreased dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. In the present study, we investigated, using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of orally administered methylphenidate (MPH), a first-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, on(More)
Co-occurrence networks produced from microbial survey sequencing data are frequently used to identify interactions between community members. While this approach has potential to reveal ecological processes, it has been insufficiently validated due to the technical limitations inherent in studying complex microbial ecosystems. Here, we simulate(More)
Several emerging technologies are aiming to meet renewable fuel standards, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and provide viable alternatives to fossil fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy into fungible liquid fuel is a particularly attractive option, though conversion of that energy on an industrial scale depends on the efficiency of its capture and(More)
Characterizing the nature and severity of cognitive deficits associated with chronic stimulant abuse may provide new insights into the neural substrates of drug addiction because such deficits may contribute to the chronic relapsing nature of compulsive drug use. This investigation examines in rats the long-term cognitive consequences of intravenously(More)
Although alterations in gut microbiota composition during acute colitis have been repeatedly observed, associated functional changes and the recovery from dysbiosis received little attention. In this study, we investigated structure and function of the gut microbiota during acute inflammation and recovery in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-colitis mouse(More)
  • Albert Leopold Müller, Júlia Rosa de Rezende, Casey R J Hubert, Kasper Urup Kjeldsen, Ilias Lagkouvardos, David Berry +2 others
  • 2014
Microbial biogeography is influenced by the combined effects of passive dispersal and environmental selection, but the contribution of either factor can be difficult to discern. As thermophilic bacteria cannot grow in the cold seabed, their inactive spores are not subject to environmental selection. We therefore conducted a global experimental survey using(More)
Halomonas species are recognized for producing exopolysaccharides (EPS) exhibiting amphiphilic properties that allow these macromolecules to interface with hydrophobic substrates, such as hydrocarbons. There remains a paucity of knowledge, however, on the potential of Halomonas EPS to influence the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. In this study, the(More)
The possibility that infantile nystagmus (IN) may reflect a failure in early sensorimotor integration has been proposed for more than a century, but is only recently being borne out in animal studies. The underlying neural and genetic substrate for this plasticity is complex. We propose that, in most cases, IN develops as a developmental response to reduced(More)
Axonal degeneration is a major cause of permanent disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent observations from our and other laboratories suggest that sodium accumulation within compromised axons is a key, early step in the degenerative process, and hence that limiting axonal sodium influx may represent a mechanism for axonal protection in MS. Here we(More)