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Although the voluntary intake of drugs of abuse is a behavior largely preserved throughout phylogeny, it is currently unclear whether pathological drug use ("addiction") can be observed in species other than humans. Here, we report that behaviors that resemble three of the essential diagnostic criteria for addiction appear over time in rats trained to(More)
We hypothesize that drug addiction can be viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial voluntary drug use through the loss of control over this behaviour, such that it becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. We describe evidence that the switch from controlled to compulsive drug seeking represents a transition at the neural level from(More)
Both impulsivity and novelty-seeking have been suggested to be behavioral markers of the propensity to take addictive drugs. However, their relevance for the vulnerability to compulsively seek and take drugs, which is a hallmark feature of addiction, is unknown. We report here that, whereas high reactivity to novelty predicts the propensity to initiate(More)
A neuroanatomical principle of striatal organization has been established through which ventral domains, including the nucleus accumbens, exert control over dorsal striatal processes mediated by so-called "spiraling," striato-nigro-striatal, circuitry. We have investigated the functional significance of this circuitry in the control over a cocaine-seeking(More)
In this review we discuss the evidence that drug addiction, defined as a maladaptive compulsive habit, results from the progressive subversion by addictive drugs of striatum-dependent operant and Pavlovian learning mechanisms that are usually involved in the control over behaviour by stimuli associated with natural reinforcement. Although mainly organized(More)
Drug addiction may be associated with a loss of executive control over maladaptive incentive habits. We hypothesize that these incentive habits result from a pathological coupling of drug-influenced motivational states and a rigid stimulus-response habit system by which drug-associated stimuli through automatic processes elicit and maintain drug seeking.(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical observations suggest that cocaine addiction often emerges with new patterns of use. Whether these changes are a cause of addiction or its consequence is unknown. We investigated whether the development of an addiction-like behavior in the rat is associated with the pattern of cocaine intake and with cocaine craving, a major feature of(More)
We investigated, in mice, the influence of life experience on the vulnerability to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a major neurotoxin that induces a Parkinson's disease-like syndrome in humans, and to cocaine, a potent psychostimulant that promotes drug addiction. Our findings show that adult C57BL/6 mice raised in an enriched(More)
Sensation/novelty-seeking is amongst the best markers of cocaine addiction in humans. However, its implication in the vulnerability to cocaine addiction is still a matter of debate, as it is unclear whether this trait precedes or follows the development of addiction. Sensation/novelty-seeking trait has been identified in rats on the basis of either(More)
The publication of the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction in 1987 and the finding that addictive drugs increase dopamine concentrations in the rat mesolimbic system in 1988 have led to a predominance of psychobiological theories that consider addiction to opiates and addiction to psychostimulants as essentially identical phenomena. Indeed, current(More)