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Universal schema builds a knowledge base (KB) of entities and relations by jointly embedding all relation types from input KBs as well as textual patterns observed in raw text. In most previous applications of universal schema, each textual pattern is represented as a single embedding, preventing generalization to unseen patterns. Recent work employs a(More)
We introduce structured prediction energy networks (SPENs), a flexible framework for structured prediction. A deep architecture is used to define an energy function of candidate labels, and then predictions are produced by using back-propagation to iteratively optimize the energy with respect to the labels. This deep architecture captures dependencies(More)
Accurately segmenting a citation string into fields for authors, titles, etc. is a challenging task because the output typically obeys various global constraints. Previous work has shown that modeling soft constraints , where the model is encouraged, but not require to obey the constraints, can substantially improve segmentation performance. On the other(More)
This paper will cover the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide thin films. Aluminum oxide thin films were deposited on the crystalline silicon substrates as the deposition(More)