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Observations demonstrate that faults are fractal surfaces with deviations from planarity at all scales. We study dynamic rupture propagation on self-similar faults having root mean square (rms) height fluctuations of order 10 3 to 10 2 times the profile length. Our 2D plane strain models feature strongly rate-weakening fault friction and off-fault(More)
We introduce structured prediction energy networks (SPENs), a flexible framework for structured prediction. A deep architecture is used to define an energy function of candidate labels, and then predictions are produced by using back-propagation to iteratively optimize the energy with respect to the labels. This deep architecture captures dependencies(More)
We study dynamic rupture propagation on flat faults using 2D plane strain models featuring strongly rate-weakening fault friction (in a rate-and-state framework) and off-fault Drucker–Prager viscoplasticity. Plastic deformation bounds stresses near the rupture front and limits slip velocities to ∼10 m=s, a bound expected to be independent of earthquake(More)
Universal schema builds a knowledge base (KB) of entities and relations by jointly embedding all relation types from input KBs as well as textual patterns observed in raw text. In most previous applications of universal schema, each textual pattern is represented as a single embedding, preventing generalization to unseen patterns. Recent work employs a(More)
Accurately segmenting a citation string into fields for authors, titles, etc. is a challenging task because the output typically obeys various global constraints. Previous work has shown that modeling soft constraints , where the model is encouraged, but not require to obey the constraints, can substantially improve segmentation performance. On the other(More)
This paper will cover the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide thin films. Aluminum oxide thin films were deposited on the crystalline silicon substrates as the deposition(More)