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In this paper the Centering model of anaphora resolution and discourse coherence (Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein, 1983, 1995) is reformulated in terms of Optimality Theory (ot) (Prince and Smolensky 1993). One version of the reformulated model is proven to be descriptively equivalent to an earlier algorithmic statement of Centering due to Brennan, Friedman and(More)
This paper describes a recently completed common resource for the study of spoken discourse, the NXT-format Switchboard Corpus. Switchboard is a long-standing corpus of telephone conversations (Godfrey et al., 1992). We have brought together transcriptions with existing annotations for syntax, disfluency, speech acts, animacy, information status,(More)
A second occurrence (SO) focus is the semantic focus of a focus sensitive operator (e.g. only), but is a repeat of an earlier focused occurrence. SO foci are intonationally distinct from the original occurrence of the material, and are often claimed to lack any intonational marking, e.g. pitch accent (Partee 1999). This apparent dissociation of semantic and(More)
The immense prosodic variation of natural conversational speech makes it challenging to predict which words are prosodically prominent in this genre. In this paper, we examine a new feature, accent ratio, which captures how likely it is that a word will be realized as prominent or not. We compare this feature with traditional accent-prediction features(More)
Lewis (1976, 1986b) concentrates on material conditionals, arguing that their semantic values are propositional but that their pragmatic values are given by conditional subjective probabilities. Thus, from the start, the general theses (1) were linked to close linguistic analysis involving both semantic and pragmatic considerations. One comes away from(More)
This paper concerns treatment of variables in a dynamic semantics. The main empirical concern will be the interaction of presupposition and quantification, but I will also consider how epistemic modals and quantifiers combine. I will show how these empirical considerations motivate a choice between two styles of quantification. The first of these styles(More)