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Synthetic and natural peptides that act as nonselective melanocortin receptor agonists have been found to be anorexigenic and to stimulate erectile activity. We report the design and development of 1, a potent, selective (1184-fold vs MC3R, 350-fold vs MC5R), small-molecule agonist of the MC4 receptor. Pharmacological testing confirms the food intake(More)
A potent, orally active growth hormone (GH) secretagogue L-163,191 belonging to a recently synthesized structural class has been characterized. L-163,191 releases GH from rat pituitary cells in culture with EC50 = 1.3 +/- 0.09 nM and is mechanistically indistinguishable from the GH-releasing peptide GHRP-6 and the prototypical nonpeptide GH secretagogue(More)
9-([2-Hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl)guanine (2'-nor-2'-deoxyguanosine; 2'NDG) selectively inhibits the replication of herpes group viruses. In cell culture studies 2'NDG was at least 10-fold more potent than acyclovir (ACV) in inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphocyte transformation and was about as(More)
The stabilities of orange oil emulsions stabilized with various concentrations of two different types of corn fiber gum (CFG-1 and 2) isolated from coarse (pericarp) and fine (endosperm) fiber from corn wet milling have been studied. The emulsion stabilities in all these studies increased with increasing gum concentration up to a gum-to-oil ratio of 0.05,(More)
Corn fiber gum (CFG) has been fractionated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin using ionic, acidic, basic, and hydrophobic solvents of different polarities. Characterization, including determination of total carbohydrate, acidic sugar, and protein content, has been done for each fraction together with measurements of molar(More)
Astaxanthin is a potential high-value coproduct in an ethanol biorefinery. Three mutant strains of the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, which were derived from the parent strain ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210) and designated JTM166, JTM185, and SSM19, were tested for their capability of utilizing the major sugars that can be generated from cellulosic(More)
Efficiency of the starch hydrolysis in the dry grind corn process is a determining factor for overall conversion of starch to ethanol. A model, based on a molecular approach, was developed to simulate structure and hydrolysis of starch. Starch structure was modeled based on a cluster model of amylopectin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of amylose and amylopectin was(More)
Many mathematical models by researchers have been formulated for Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is the common yeast strain used in modern distilleries. A cybernetic model that can account for varying concentrations of glucose, ethanol and organic acids on yeast cell growth dynamics does not exist. A cybernetic model, consisting of 4 reactions and 11(More)
With rapid growth of fuel ethanol industry, and concomitant increase in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), new corn fractionation technologies that reduce DDGS volume and produce higher value coproducts in dry grind ethanol process have been developed. One of the technologies, a dry degerm, defiber (3D) process (similar to conventional corn dry(More)
Approximately 9% of the 9.7 billion bushels of corn harvested in the United States was used for fuel ethanol production in 2002, half of which was prepared for fermentation by dry grinding. The University of Illinois has developed a modified dry grind process that allows recovery of the fiber fractions prior to fermentation. We report here on conversion of(More)