David B Konrad

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G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are an integral part of inhibitory signal transduction pathways, reducing the activity of excitable cells via hyperpolarization. They play crucial roles in processes such as cardiac output, cognition and the coordination of movement. Therefore, the precision control of GIRK channels is of(More)
The covalent attachment of synthetic photoswitches is a general approach to impart light sensitivity onto native receptors. It mimics the logic of natural photoreceptors and significantly expands the reach of optogenetics. Here we describe a novel photoswitch design-the photoswitchable orthogonal remotely tethered ligand (PORTL)-that combines the(More)
Azobenzenes are versatile photoswitches that can be cycled between their trans- and cis-configuration with light. The wavelengths required for this isomerization are substantially shifted from the UV to the visible range through tetra-ortho-chlorination. These halogenated azobenzenes display unique photoswitching characteristics, but their syntheses remain(More)
A mild and general set of metalation procedures for the functionalization of unsymmetrical azobenzenes using a commercially available continuous-flow setup is reported. The metalations proceed with TMPLi under convenient conditions (0 °C, 20 s), and various classes of electrophiles can be used. With sensitive substrates, an in situ trapping metalation in(More)
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling occurs in complex spatiotemporal patterns that are difficult to probe using standard pharmacological and genetic approaches. A powerful approach for dissecting GPCRs is to use light-controlled pharmacological agents that are tethered covalently and specifically to genetically engineered receptors. However,(More)
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