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In Xuan Wei County, Yunnan Province, lung cancer mortality is among China's highest and, especially in females, is more closely associated with indoor burning of "smoky" coal, as opposed to wood or "smokeless" coal, than with tobacco smoking. Indoor air samples were collected during the burning of all three fuels. In contrast to wood and smokeless coal(More)
W To develop sampling strategies and bioassay protocols for indoor air containing emissions from coal combustion in homes of the rural Xuan Wei County in China, we developed a medium-volume sampler to collect the <lO-pm particles and semivolatile organics by a filter and an XADS resin, respectively. A high-volume particulate sampler was used for comparison.(More)
To develop effective air quality control strategies for military air bases, there is a need to accurately quantify these emissions. In support of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from two T56 engines on a parked C-130 aircraft were characterized at the Kentucky Air(More)
Zidovudine (AZT) lowers the perinatal transmission of HIV but can impair mitochondrial function by depleting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). AZT therapy and perinatal nutritional deprivation affect the body fat distribution, which influences glucose tolerance. We sought to model intrauterine exposure to AZT in humans to determine whether it interacts with(More)
This paper describes results from the first field experiment designed to evaluate a new approach for quantifying gaseous fugitive emissions of area air pollution sources. The approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) technique and computed tomography (CT) technique. In this study,(More)
Air pollutant emission from unconfined sources is an increasingly important environmental issue. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a ground-based optical remote-sensing method that enables direct measurement of fugitive emission flux from large area sources. Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) has been the(More)
In Xuan Wei, a rural Chinese county of about one million people, females' annual lung cancer mortality is China's highest, and males' is among China's highest. Xuan Wei's very high indoor air pollution levels (sometimes exceeding 20 mg/m3), residentially stable population, relatively uncomplicated lifestyle, and wide geographic variation in lung cancer(More)
Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithms have widespread applications in many areas, such as real-time signal processing, control and communications. This paper shows that the unique solutions to linear-equality constrained and the unconstrained LS problems, respectively, always have exactly the same recursive form. Their only difference lies in the initial(More)
A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them accurately, and little quantitative data exist to evaluate the relative effectiveness of various(More)
Originally constructed to develop gaseous emission factors for heavy-duty diesel trucks, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) On-Road Diesel Emissions Characterization Facility has been modified to incorporate particle measurement instrumentation. An electrical low-pressure impactor designed to continuously measure and record size distribution(More)