David B. Halling

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Ca2+-dependent inactivation (CDI) and facilitation (CDF) of the Ca(v)1.2 Ca2+ channel require calmodulin binding to a putative IQ motif in the carboxy-terminal tail of the pore-forming subunit. We present the 1.45 A crystal structure of Ca2+-calmodulin bound to a 21 residue peptide corresponding to the IQ domain of Ca(v)1.2. This structure shows that(More)
Calmodulin, a highly versatile and ubiquitously expressed Ca2+ sensor, regulates the function of many enzymes and ion channels. Both Ca2+-dependent inactivation and Ca2+-dependent facilitation of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channels Cav1.2 and Cav2.1 are regulated through an interaction with Ca2+-bound calmodulin. This review addresses the functional regulation(More)
Small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels respond to intracellular Ca(2+) via constitutively associated calmodulin (CaM). Previous studies have proposed a modular design for the interaction between CaM and SK channels. The C-lobe and the linker of CaM are thought to regulate the constitutive binding, whereas the N-lobe binds Ca(2+) and(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) functions as a Ca(2+) sensor for inactivation and, in some cases, facilitation of a variety of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. A crucial determinant for CaM binding to these channels is the IQ motif in the COOH-terminal tail of the channel-forming subunit. The binding of CaM to IQ peptides from Lc-, P/Q-, and R-type, but not N-type,(More)
Most human genes contain multiple alternative splice sites believed to extend the complexity and diversity of the proteome. However, little is known about how interactions among alternative exons regulate protein function. We used the Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 large-conductance calcium and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channel gene, which contains(More)
The cardiac L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel is responsible for initiating excitation-contraction coupling. Three sequences (amino acids 1609-1628, 1627-1652, and 1665-1685, designated A, C, and IQ, respectively) of its alpha(1) subunit contribute to calmodulin (CaM) binding and Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. Peptides matching the A, C, and IQ(More)
In skeletal muscle the L-type Ca2+ channel directly controls the opening of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel (RYR1), and RYR1, in turn, prevents L-type Ca2+ channel inactivation. We demonstrate that the two proteins interact using calmodulin binding regions of both proteins. A recombinant protein representing amino acids 1393-1527(More)
Calmodulin (CaM) is a Ca(2+)-sensing protein that is highly conserved and ubiquitous in eukaryotes. In humans it is a locus of life-threatening cardiomyopathies. The primary function of CaM is to transduce Ca(2+) concentration into cellular signals by binding to a wide range of target proteins in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. We do not fully understand how CaM(More)
Calmodulin binds to IQ motifs in the alpha(1) subunit of Ca(V)1.1 and Ca(V)1.2, but the affinities of calmodulin for the motif and for Ca(2+) are higher when bound to Ca(V)1.2 IQ. The Ca(V)1.1 IQ and Ca(V)1.2 IQ sequences differ by four amino acids. We determined the structure of calmodulin bound to Ca(V)1.1 IQ and compared it with that of calmodulin bound(More)
Ca(2+) activates SK Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels through the protein Ca(2+) sensor, calmodulin (CaM). To understand how SK channels operate, it is necessary to determine how Ca(2+) regulates CaM binding to its target on SK. Tagless, recombinant SK peptide (SKp), was purified for binding studies with CaM at low and high Ca(2+) concentrations. Composition(More)
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