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Pathogens induce the expression of many genes encoding plant transcription factors, though specific knowledge of the biological function of individual transcription factors remains scarce. NAC transcription factors are encoded in plants by a gene family with proposed functions in both abiotic and biotic stress adaptation, as well as in developmental(More)
Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is reported to inhibit biotrophic but benefit necrotrophic pathogens. Infection by necrotrophs can result in a massive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in hosts. Little is known of how pathogens with both growth types are affected (hemibiotrophs). The hemibiotroph, Septoria tritici, infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum) is inhibited by(More)
A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 days after inoculation. This coincided with the appearance of(More)
14-3-3 proteins function as regulators of a wide range of target proteins in all eukaryotes by effecting direct protein-protein interactions. Primarily, interactions between 14-3-3 proteins and their targets are mediated by phosphorylation at specific sites on the target protein. Hence, interactions with 14-3-3s are subject to environmental control through(More)
ATAF1 is a member of a largely uncharacterized plant-specific gene family encoding NAC transcription factors, and is induced in response to various abiotic and biotic stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we showed that a mutant allele of ATAF1 compromises penetration resistance in Arabidopsis with respect to the non-host biotrophic pathogen Blumeria(More)
The full-length nucleotide sequence of a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf mRNA, found to increase rapidly in amount during infection attempts by the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis DC. ex Mérat), is reported. The mRNA encodes a polypeptide of 809 amino acid residues which, by sequence comparison, was identified as a member of the 90 kDa heat shock(More)
The 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) is a member of the 90-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) family. In this study, we expressed the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) GRP94 and the alpha isoform of human HSP90 (HSP90 alpha) in Escherichia coli and compared their dimer-forming abilities. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that GRP94 (amino(More)
Summary Two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cDNA clones (pBH6-12 and pBH6-17) were isolated from a cDNA library prepared from leaves 6 h after inoculation with Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh). The two transcripts accumulate strongly in response to Bgh, peaking around 6, 15-24 and 48-96 h after inoculation, concomitant with fungal penetration attempts,(More)
Transgenic crops are now grown commercially in 25 countries worldwide. Although pathogens represent major constraints for the growth of many crops, only a tiny proportion of these transgenic crops carry disease resistance traits. Nevertheless, transgenic disease-resistant plants represent approximately 10% of the total number of approved field trials in(More)