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Analysis of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity through morphological characters of spores and intraradicular hyphae has suggested previously that preferential associations occur between plants and AM fungi. A field experiment was established to investigate whether AM fungal diversity is affected by different host plants in upland grasslands.(More)
Metabolic energy fuels all biological processes, and therefore theories that explain the scaling of metabolic rate with body mass potentially have great predictive power in ecology. A new model, that could improve this predictive power, postulates that the metabolic scaling exponent (b) varies between 2/3 and 1, and is inversely related to the elevation of(More)
Most ectothermic organisms mature at smaller body sizes when reared in warmer conditions. This phenotypically plastic response, known as the "temperature-size rule" (TSR), is one of the most taxonomically widespread patterns in biology. However, the TSR remains a longstanding life-history puzzle for which no dominant driver has been found. We propose that(More)
Three approaches to nitrogen budgeting were developed and their ability to quantitatively describe nitrogen cycling in a fertilizer based and a grass–clover based beef system tested. Budgets ranged in complexity from the Economic Input:Output (EIO) budget, which accounted simply for purchases and sales of nitrogen over the farmgate, through the Biological(More)
Attenuation correction is an essential requirement for quantification of positron emission tomography (PET) data. In PET/CT acquisition systems, attenuation maps are derived from computed tomography (CT) images. However, in hybrid PET/MR scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images do not directly provide a patient-specific attenuation map. The aim of(More)
An inverse relationship between organism size and rearing temperature is widely observed in ectotherms ('the temperature-size rule', TSR). This has rarely been quantified for related taxa, and its applicability to protists also required testing. Here, we quantify the relationship between temperature and mean cell volume within the protists by a(More)
An inverse relationship between temperature during ontogeny and final body size is widespread in ectotherms, but poorly understood. Evidence suggests that within organs, this "temperature-size rule" (TSR) may also apply to cell size with no change in numbers. So how closely do reductions in size and number of cells and other repeated structures correlate(More)
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is an imaging method which enables a volume conductivity map of a subject to be produced from multiple impedance measurements. It has the potential to become a portable non-invasive imaging technique of particular use in imaging brain function. Accurate numerical forward models may be used to improve image(More)
Two major intraspecific patterns of adult size variation are plastic temperature-size (T-S) responses and latitude-size (L-S) clines. Yet, the degree to which these co-vary and share explanatory mechanisms has not been systematically evaluated. We present the largest quantitative comparison of these gradients to date, and find that their direction and(More)