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Cell surface molecules that can act as virus receptors may exert an important selective pressure on RNA viral quasispecies. Large population passages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cell culture select for mutant viruses that render dispensable a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif responsible for integrin receptor recognition. Here, we(More)
The increasing rate in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has become an imperative health issue. Thus, pharmaceutical industries have focussed their efforts to find new potent, non-toxic compounds to treat bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates in the fight against antibiotic-resistant pathogens due to their low(More)
Antibiotic peptides are a key component of the innate immune systems of most multicellular organisms. Despite broad divergences in sequence and taxonomy, most antibiotic peptides share a common mechanism of action, i.e., membrane permeabilization of the pathogen. This review provides a general introduction to the subject, with emphasis on aspects such as(More)
The D enantiomers of three naturally occurring antibiotics--cecropin A, magainin 2 amide, and melittin--were synthesized. In addition, the D enantiomers of two synthetic chimeric cecropin-melittin hybrid peptides were prepared. Each D isomer was shown by circular dichroism to be a mirror image of the corresponding L isomer in several solvent mixtures. In(More)
Porcine T-cell recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural proteins (NSP) was tested using in vitro lymphoproliferative responses. Lymphocytes were obtained from outbred pigs experimentally infected with FMDV. Of the different NSP, polypeptides 3A, 3B, and 3C gave the highest stimulations in the in vitro assays. The use of overlapping(More)
Antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were generated and frequently became dominant in clonal populations of FMDV (clone C-S8c1) grown in the absence of anti-FMDV antibodies. We have now passaged eight samples of the same FMDV clone in the presence of a limited amount of neutralizing polyclonal antibodies directed to the major antigenic(More)
The feeding cycle of the adult female cockroach Blattella germanica parallels vitellogenesis. The study of the mechanisms that regulate this cycle led us to look for food-intake inhibitors in brain extracts. The antifeedant activity of brain extracts was tested in vivo by injecting the extract and measuring the carotenoids contained in the gut from carrot(More)
Reports on the lethal activity of animal antibiotic peptides have largely focused on bacterial rather than eukaryotic targets. In these, involvement of internal organelles as well as mechanisms different from those of prokaryotic cells have been described. CA(1-8)M(1-18) is a synthetic cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide with leishmanicidal activity. Using(More)
Pulmonary surfactant, a thin lipid/protein film lining mammalian lungs, functions in vivo to reduce the work of breathing and to prevent alveolar collapse. Analogues of two hydrophobic surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, have been incorporated into therapeutic agents for respiratory distress syndrome, a pathological condition resulting from deficiency in(More)
AIMS There is insufficient evidence to implant a combined cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device with defibrillation capabilities (CRT-D) in all CRT candidates. The aim of the study was to assess myocardial scar size and its heterogeneity as predictors of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in CRT candidates. METHODS AND RESULTS A cohort of 78 consecutive(More)