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Cell surface molecules that can act as virus receptors may exert an important selective pressure on RNA viral quasispecies. Large population passages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in cell culture select for mutant viruses that render dispensable a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif responsible for integrin receptor recognition. Here, we(More)
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C were assayed with field isolates and variant FMDVs using several immunoassays. Of a total of 36 nMAbs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein VP1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of FMDV(More)
Cecropins are naturally occurring peptides that play an important role in the immune response of insects. Cecropin A-derived and cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptides, all smaller than the natural compound cecropin A, were synthesized and tested for their ability to inhibit growth of several agronomically important fungal pathogens. We found that an(More)
The feeding cycle of the adult female cockroach Blattella germanica parallels vitellogenesis. The study of the mechanisms that regulate this cycle led us to look for food-intake inhibitors in brain extracts. The antifeedant activity of brain extracts was tested in vivo by injecting the extract and measuring the carotenoids contained in the gut from carrot(More)
The increasing rate in antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has become an imperative health issue. Thus, pharmaceutical industries have focussed their efforts to find new potent, non-toxic compounds to treat bacterial infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates in the fight against antibiotic-resistant pathogens due to their low(More)
Antibiotic peptides are a key component of the innate immune systems of most multicellular organisms. Despite broad divergences in sequence and taxonomy, most antibiotic peptides share a common mechanism of action, i.e., membrane permeabilization of the pathogen. This review provides a general introduction to the subject, with emphasis on aspects such as(More)
The D enantiomers of three naturally occurring antibiotics--cecropin A, magainin 2 amide, and melittin--were synthesized. In addition, the D enantiomers of two synthetic chimeric cecropin-melittin hybrid peptides were prepared. Each D isomer was shown by circular dichroism to be a mirror image of the corresponding L isomer in several solvent mixtures. In(More)
Antigenic variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were generated and frequently became dominant in clonal populations of FMDV (clone C-S8c1) grown in the absence of anti-FMDV antibodies. We have now passaged eight samples of the same FMDV clone in the presence of a limited amount of neutralizing polyclonal antibodies directed to the major antigenic(More)
Porcine T-cell recognition of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural proteins (NSP) was tested using in vitro lymphoproliferative responses. Lymphocytes were obtained from outbred pigs experimentally infected with FMDV. Of the different NSP, polypeptides 3A, 3B, and 3C gave the highest stimulations in the in vitro assays. The use of overlapping(More)
The mechanism of action of cecropin was studied by using liposomes as a model system. The bilayer was efficiently destroyed if the liposome net charge was zero or negative. Cecropin analogues with an impaired N-terminal helix had reduced membrane disrupting abilities that correlate with their lower antibacterial activity. The reduced bactericidal activity(More)