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Widow benefits have been a part of the Social Security program since the 1939 amendments to the Social Security Act (widower benefits were added later). For many years, the Social Security law called for paying a widow(er) a fraction of the deceased worker's primary insurance amount (PIA). However, the worker--while alive--may have received the full PIA as(More)
Glucocorticoids bind with high affinity to intracellular receptors located in high density within discrete regions of the rodent and primate brain. The binding of [3H]corticosterone was compared in the brains of male vs female rats. The number and affinity of cytosol receptors in the hippocampus and hypothalamus were examined in vitro. The cytosolic binding(More)
BACKGROUND Although 40-50% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors respond to cisplatin chemotherapy, there currently is no way to prospectively identify potential responders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether transcript abundance (TA) levels of twelve selected DNA repair or multi-drug resistance genes (LIG1, ERCC2, ERCC3, DDIT3,(More)
Normal bronchial epithelial cells (NBECs) are at risk for damage from inhaled and endogenous oxidative species and from epoxide metabolites of inhaled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Epidemiological and in vitro data suggest that interindividual variation in this risk may result from variation in NBEC expression of enzymes that inactivate reactive species(More)
There are numerous types of benefits paid under the Social Security programs of the United States, with each type of benefit having its own set of eligibility rules and benefit formula. It is likely that there is an association between the type of benefit a person receives and the economic circumstances of the beneficiary. This article explores that(More)
Our previous work found DA rats superior for intrinsic aerobic running capacity (ARC) and several cardiac function indexes compared with Copenhagen (COP) rats, and identified ARC quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on rat chromosomes 16 (RNO16) and 3 (RNO3). The purpose of this study was to use these inbred rat strains as a genetic substrate for differential(More)
Bronchogenic carcinomas arise from bronchial epithelial cells (BECs). Inhalation exposure of BECs to nitrosamines in cigarette smoke is an important exogenous risk factor for malignant transformation of BECs. Thus, an important endogenous risk factor is likely to be the capacity of BECs to metabolize nitrosamines. Among the cytochrome P450 enzymes capable(More)
This article reviews the economic literature on the work and retirement decisions of older women. Economic studies generally find that married women respond to the financial reward for work (for example, wages) in making their work and retirement decisions, but that they do not respond to unearned income and wealth (for example, the value of lifetime Social(More)
The relative mRNA levels of differentially expressed (DE) and housekeeping (HK) genes of six aneuploid cancer lines with large-scale genomic changes identified by SNP/SKY analysis were compared with similar genes in diploid cells. The aneuploid cancer lines had heterogeneous genomic landscapes with subdiploid, diploid, and supradiploid regions and higher(More)
Working Papers in this series are preliminary materials circulated for review and comment. The views expressed are the authors' and do not necessarily represent the position of the Social Security Administration. The papers have not been cleared for publication and should not be quoted without permission. Summary In this paper we focus on an age restriction(More)