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Oxygen minimum zones, also known as oceanic "dead zones," are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding because of global warming. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, they support a cryptic microbiota whose metabolic activities affect nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here, we report metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous(More)
Age differences in central perceptual processing were investigated using young (mean age 19.5 years) and old (mean age 64.2 years) subjects in a backward masking paradigm known to produce central interference. Subjects were presented with symmetrical, straight-lined letters as target stimuli (TS). The masking stimulus (MS) was a pattern of line segments of(More)
This report describes the histochemical and physiological properties of a rat skeletal muscle with a robust activity-dependent slow inward Ca2+ current. The muscle, the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), is a small plantar flexor from the hindfoot. It is a homogeneous muscle consisting of approximately 90% fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic (type IIA) fibers.(More)
In each of three visual pattern masking experiments, four curved letters (C, O, Q, S) and four angular letters (E, I, L, T) served as targets preceded or followed by either a curved mask (Q,S, and C superimposed) or an angular mask (T and E superimposed). With a dark fixation and interstimulus interval field and target-mask engergies that produce clearly(More)
Bilateral changes in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion content of the sensory peptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide have been previously reported in animal models of arthritis which affect many joints within the body. The central nervous system has been implicated in the symmetry of joint involvement in human rheumatoid arthritis.(More)
OBJECTIVES Blockade of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) with systemic antagonists attenuates osteoarthritis (OA) pain behaviour in rat models, but on-target-mediated hyperthermia has halted clinical trials. The present study investigated the potential for targeting TRPV1 receptors within the OA joint in order to produce analgesia. METHODS(More)
In the context of uncertainty about aetiology and prognosis, good clinical practice commonly recommends both affective (creating rapport, showing empathy) and cognitive reassurance (providing explanations and education) to increase self-management in groups with nonspecific pain conditions. The specific impact of each of these components in reference to(More)
Objectives. The osteochondral junction can be a source of pain in both RA and OA. Growth of blood vessels and nerves from the subchondral bone into articular cartilage may mediate the association between joint pathology and symptoms. We have investigated associations between angiogenesis, inflammation and neurovascular growth factor expression at the(More)
The effects of practice on performance in a dichoptic masking paradigm was assessed across two age groups (mean age - 66.5 and 18.8 years). For both age groups practice resulted in a reliable reduction in the time separation between the onset of the target stimulus and the onset of the masking stimulus required to escape masking. The magnitude of reduction(More)
Peripheral processes in vision were investigated in two experiments involving monoptic backward masking with random noise. For young and old subjects, peripheral processing time (represented by stimulus onset asynchrony of target and mask) was characterized as a power function of target energy. Although processing time for both age groups showed a similar(More)