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1. Re-innervation of soleus was studied in the mouse after either crushing the sciatic nerve or re-implanting the nerve to soleus outside the original end-plate region.2. During the early stages of re-innervation subthreshold end-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) were recorded in muscle fibres in response to nerve stimulation. Later the e.p.p.s became large enough(More)
1. A sublethal dose of tetanus toxin was injected into the muscles of one hind leg of the mouse and caused local tetanus which persisted for 4 weeks.2. Neuromuscular transmission was studied in vitro in nerve-muscle preparations of soleus, a slow muscle, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), a fast muscle, from 1 day to 6 months after the injection of(More)
Relatively little is known of the growth requirements for regenerating axons of the peripheral nervous system of adult animals. In the present study, we show that extracellular matrix material secreted by the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor cell line (matrigel) supports axonal growth from explanted peripheral nerve-dorsal root ganglia (DRG) preparations of(More)
Recent studies have shown that lens lesion promotes axonal regeneration in the optic nerve of adult rats. In the present investigations, dissociated retinal ganglion cells (RGC) from intact postnatal (P) 9-11 rats showed spontaneous neurite outgrowth on laminin-1, in contrast to RGC from intact P14-adult rats. Neurite outgrowth from P9-14 RGC on laminin-1(More)
1. A sublethal dose of botulinum toxin (type A) was injected into the muscles of one hind limb of the mouse causing local paralysis.2. Neuromuscular transmission and muscle sensitivity to acetylcholine (ACh) were studied in vitro in soleus and extensor digitorium longus (EDL) from 6 hr to 4 months after the injection of toxin.3. Both soleus and EDL failed(More)
Monoclonal antibodies SMI-31 and 150 recognize phosphorylation epitopes on microtubule-associated protein 1B that have been shown to be developmentally down-regulated in the nervous system. We have used these antibodies to establish changes in the pattern of expression of their epitopes on microtubule-associated protein 1B in regenerating axons of the(More)
Non-viral methods of transfection of cDNAs into adult neurons and other post-mitotic cells are generally very inefficient. However, the recent development of Nucleofector technology developed by Amaxa Biosystems allows direct delivery of cDNAs into the nucleus, enabling transfection of non-dividing cells. In this study, we describe a reliable method for(More)
The effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on axonal outgrowth and apoptosis were studied in vitro using explanted dorsal root ganglia-peripheral nerve preparations of adult mice. In gels of matrigel or collagen type 1, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor increased both the numbers and lengths of axons growing out of explanted(More)
Bradykinin B2 receptor mRNA was detected at low levels, both by RT-PCR and by in situ hybridization, in freshly isolated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in ganglia cultured in the absence of neurotrophic factors, but was strongly upregulated by culture in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF). The effect of NGF is mediated via TrkA receptors. The related(More)
Explanted preparations of peripheral nerves with attached dorsal root ganglia of adult mammals and amphibia survive for several days in serum-free medium and can be used to study axonal regeneration in vitro. This review outlines the methods which we routinely use and how they may be applied to study different aspects of axonal regeneration. When the(More)