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Protein translation has been implicated in different forms of synaptic plasticity, but direct in situ visualization of new proteins is limited to one or two proteins at a time. Here we describe a metabolic labeling approach based on incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into proteins followed by chemoselective fluorescence tagging by means of 'click(More)
A major aim of proteomics is the identification of proteins in a given proteome at a given metabolic state. This protocol describes the step-by-step labeling, purification and detection of newly synthesized proteins in mammalian cells using the non-canonical amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA). In this method, metabolic labeling of newly synthesized proteins(More)
Protein synthesis is a dynamic process that tunes the cellular proteome in response to internal and external demands. Metabolic labeling approaches identify the general proteomic response but cannot visualize specific newly synthesized proteins within cells. Here we describe a technique that couples noncanonical amino acid tagging or puromycylation with the(More)
Here we describe the application of a new click chemistry method for fluorescent tracking of protein synthesis in individual microorganisms within environmental samples. This technique, termed bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT), is based on the in vivo incorporation of the non-canonical amino acid L-azidohomoalanine (AHA), a surrogate(More)
In both normal and pathological states, cells respond rapidly to environmental cues by synthesizing new proteins. The selective identification of a newly synthesized proteome has been hindered by the basic fact that all proteins, new and old, share the same pool of amino acids and thus are chemically indistinguishable. We describe here a technology, based(More)
The intracellular trafficking of drugs is critical to the efficacy of drugs that are susceptible to attack by lysosomal enzymes. It is therefore an important goal to design and synthesize molecules which can enhance the transport of endocytosed drugs from the endosomal compartments to the cytoplasm. The pH of an endosome is lower than that of the cytosol by(More)
Through billions of years of evolution nature has created and refined structural proteins for a wide variety of specific purposes. Amino acid sequences and their associated folding patterns combine to create elastic, rigid or tough materials. In many respects, nature's intricately designed products provide challenging examples for materials scientists, but(More)
Cells engage in mechanical force exchange with their extracellular environment through tension generated by the cytoskeleton. A method combining laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and digital volume correlation (DVC) enables tracking and quantification of cell-mediated deformation of the extracellular matrix in all three spatial dimensions.(More)
Methods of genetic engineering were applied to the design and biosynthesis of three extracellular matrix protein analogues constructed from identical elastin- and fibronectin-derived repeating units but characterized by different molecular weights in the range of 14,000 to 59,000. Expression levels were enhanced by the serendipitous choice of an N-terminal(More)