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A system responding to a stochastic driving signal can be interpreted as computing, by means of its dynamics, an implicit model of the environmental variables. The system's state retains information about past environmental fluctuations, and a fraction of this information is predictive of future ones. The remaining nonpredictive information reflects model… (More)

We have measured the bending elasticity of short double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) chains through small-angle x-ray scattering from solutions of dsDNA-linked dimers of gold nanoparticles. This method, which does not require exertion of external forces or binding to a substrate, reports on the equilibrium distribution of bending fluctuations, not just an average… (More)

- Hari Shroff, David Sivak, Jake J Siegel, A L McEvoy, Merek Siu, Andrew Spakowitz +2 others
- Biophysical journal
- 2008

Knowledge of the mechanical properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is essential to understand the role of dsDNA looping in gene regulation and the mechanochemistry of molecular machines that operate on dsDNA. Here, we use a newly developed tool, force sensors with optical readout, to measure the forces inside short, strained loops composed of both dsDNA… (More)

A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls… (More)

Many interesting divergence measures between conjugate ensembles of nonequilibrium trajectories can be experimentally determined from the work distribution of the process. Herein, we review the statistical and physical significance of several of these measures, in particular the relative entropy (dissipation), Jeffreys divergence (hysteresis),… (More)

The wormlike chain model of DNA bending accurately reproduces single-molecule force-extension profiles of long (kilobase) chains. These bending statistics over large scales do not, however, establish a unique microscopic model for elasticity at the 1-10 basepair (bp) scale, which holds particular interest in biological contexts. Here, we examine a class of… (More)

A deeper understanding of nonequilibrium phenomena is needed to reveal the principles governing natural and synthetic molecular machines. Recent work has shown that when a thermodynamic system is driven from equilibrium then, in the linear response regime, the space of controllable parameters has a Riemannian geometry induced by a generalized friction… (More)

Common algorithms for computationally simulating Langevin dynamics must discretize the stochastic differential equations of motion. These resulting finite-time-step integrators necessarily have several practical issues in common: Microscopic reversibility is violated, the sampled stationary distribution differs from the desired equilibrium distribution, and… (More)

A central endeavor of thermodynamics is the measurement of free energy changes. Regrettably, although we can measure the free energy of a system in thermodynamic equilibrium, typically all we can say about the free energy of a nonequilibrium ensemble is that it is larger than that of the same system at equilibrium. Herein, we derive a formally exact… (More)

Electrophorescing biopolymers across nanopores modulates the ionic current through the pore, revealing the polymer's diameter, length, and conformation. The rapidity of polymer translocation ( approximately 30,000 bp/ms) in this geometry greatly limits the information that can be obtained for each base. Here we show that the translocation speed of… (More)