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OBJECTIVE The impact of a multicomponent intervention programme on the sexual health of adolescents was assessed in rural Tanzania. DESIGN A community-randomized trial. METHODS Twenty communities were randomly allocated to receive either a specially designed programme of interventions (intervention group) or standard activities (comparison group). The(More)
To measure the impact of maternal syphilis on pregnancy outcome in the Mwanza Region of Tanzania, 380 previously unscreened pregnant women were recruited into a retrospective cohort at delivery and tested for syphilis. Stillbirth was observed in 18 (25%) of 73 women with high-titer active syphilis (i.e., women with a rapid plasma reagin titer > or = 1 :8(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for poor birth outcome and their population attributable fractions. METHODS 1688 women who attended for antenatal care were recruited into a prospective study of the effectiveness of syphilis screening and treatment. All women were screened and treated for syphilis and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs) during(More)
NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an antioxidant enzyme, important in the detoxification of environmental carcinogens. A single base substitution (C --> T) polymorphism at nucleotide 609 (null-allele) of NQO1 gene impairs stability and function of the NQO1 protein. To investigate the association of this NQO1 polymorphism with susceptibility to(More)
AIMS The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service. METHODS Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a(More)
The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in(More)
Treatment for maternal syphilis with single-dose benzathine penicillin (2.4 million units intramuscularly) is being implemented in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. To examine the effectiveness of this regimen, a prospective cohort of 1688 pregnant women was recruited in Tanzania. Birth outcomes were compared among women treated for high-titer (n=133; rapid(More)
BACKGROUND Over thirty years have passed since the Alma-Ata Declaration on primary health care in 1978. Many governments in the first decade following the declaration responded by developing national programmes of community health workers (CHWs), but evaluations of these often demonstrated poor outcomes. As many CHW programmes have responded to the HIV/AIDS(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with an increased risk of acquiring infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study tested the hypothesis that HSV-2 suppressive therapy reduces the risk of HIV acquisition. METHODS Female workers at recreational facilities in northwestern Tanzania who were 16 to(More)