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Though this document was produced through an interagency effort, the following BLM numbers have been assigned for tracking and administrative purposes: Center was essential to successfully completing this document. The order of authors cited for this publication reflects the time spent on document preparation and organization, not the important and equal(More)
Alien grass invasions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are resulting in grass–fire cycles and ecosystem-level transformations that severely diminish ecosystem services. Our capacity to address the rapid and complex changes occurring in these ecosystems can be enhanced by developing an understanding of the environmental factors and ecosystem attributes that(More)
Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous(More)
Annual grass invasion into shrub-dominated ecosystems is associated with changes in nutrient cycling that may alter nitrogen (N) limitation and retention. Carbon (C) applications that reduce plant-available N have been suggested to give native perennial vegetation a competitive advantage over exotic annual grasses, but plant community and N retention(More)
41 For more than 30 years, the relationship between net primary productivity and species richness has generated intense debate in ecology about the processes regulating local diversity. The original view, which is still widely accepted, holds that the relationship is hump-shaped, with richness first rising and then declining with increasing productivity.(More)
Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light,(More)
Invasions have increased the size of regional species pools, but are typically assumed to reduce native diversity. However, global-scale tests of this assumption have been elusive because of the focus on exotic species richness, rather than relative abundance. This is problematic because low invader richness can indicate invasion resistance by the native(More)
Restoration and revegetattion of rangeland ecosystems is based on knowledge of abiotic and biotic interactions that affect plant establishment. Once plants become autotropbic, interactions within and between plant species may occur and these interactions may range from antagonistic to mutualistic. This full range of potential interactions needs to be(More)
Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and(More)
Insulin autoantibodies (IAA) were studied in newly diagnosed insulin-dependent diabetics before the start of insulin treatment and in unaffected identical twins of insulin-dependent diabetics. In 15 of the 40 (38%) diabetics and 27 of the 58 (47%) twins IAA levels exceeded those of 100 controls. Frequency of IAA in unaffected twins was not related to(More)