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HIV infection is associated with the progressive loss of CD4(+) T cells through their destruction or decreased production. A central, yet unresolved issue of HIV disease is the mechanism for this loss, and in particular whether HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells are preferentially affected. Here we show that HIV-specific memory CD4(+) T cells in infected(More)
Vaccinia virus immunization provides lifelong protection against smallpox, but the mechanisms of this exquisite protection are unknown. We used polychromatic flow cytometry to characterize the functional and phenotypic profile of CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccinia virus immunization in a comparative vaccine trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)(More)
Members of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, a large group of polymorphic receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, recognize particular peptide-laden human leukocyte antigen (pHLA) class I molecules and have a pivotal role in innate immune responses. Allelic variation and extensive polymorphism within the three-domain KIR(More)
The mechanisms underlying CD4(+) T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well understood. Comparative studies of lymphoid tissues, where the vast majority of T cells reside, and peripheral blood can potentially illuminate the pathogenesis of HIV-associated disease. Here, we studied the effect of HIV infection on the(More)
Immunological memory is thought to depend on a stem cell-like, self-renewing population of lymphocytes capable of differentiating into effector cells in response to antigen re-exposure. Here we describe a long-lived human memory T cell population that has an enhanced capacity for self-renewal and a multipotent ability to derive central memory, effector(More)
Here, we report on the expression of programmed death (PD)-1 on human virus-specific CD8(+) T cells and the effect of manipulating signaling through PD-1 on the survival, proliferation, and cytokine function of these cells. PD-1 expression was found to be low on naive CD8(+) T cells and increased on memory CD8(+) T cells according to antigen specificity.(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons leading to motor disturbances and cognitive impairment. Current pharmacotherapies relieve PD symptoms temporarily but fail to prevent or slow down the disease progression. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which the non-selective(More)
Acute HIV infection is characterized by massive loss of CD4 T cells from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Th17 cells are critical in the defense against microbes, particularly at mucosal surfaces. Here we analyzed Th17 cells in the blood, GI tract, and broncheoalveolar lavage of HIV-infected and uninfected humans, and SIV-infected and uninfected sooty(More)
Tetrameric peptide-MHC class I complexes ("tetramers") are proving invaluable as reagents for characterizing immune responses involving CTLs. However, because the TCR can exhibit a degree of promiscuity for binding peptide-MHC class I ligands, there is potential for cross-reactivity. Recent reports showing that the TCR/peptide-MHC interaction is(More)
Two FMRFamide-related neuropeptides, GYIRFamide and YIRFamide, were isolated from the marine turbellarian Bdelloura candida. The peptides elicited a dose-dependent contraction of isolated turbellarian muscle fibers, and both were more potent than FMRFamide. Structure-activity studies, using a range of analogues of the tetrapeptide amide, indicated that the(More)