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Here, we report on the expression of programmed death (PD)-1 on human virus-specific CD8(+) T cells and the effect of manipulating signaling through PD-1 on the survival, proliferation, and cytokine function of these cells. PD-1 expression was found to be low on naive CD8(+) T cells and increased on memory CD8(+) T cells according to antigen specificity.(More)
Flow cytometric detection of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells has previously been limited to MHC-class I tetramer staining or intracellular cytokine production, neither of which measure the cytolytic potential of these cells. Here we present a novel technique to enumerate antigen-specific CD8+ T cells using a marker expressed on the cell surface following(More)
The mechanisms underlying CD4(+) T cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are not well understood. Comparative studies of lymphoid tissues, where the vast majority of T cells reside, and peripheral blood can potentially illuminate the pathogenesis of HIV-associated disease. Here, we studied the effect of HIV infection on the(More)
The human steroid 21-hydroxylase gene, CYP21B, and its closely homologous pseudogene, CYP21A, are each normally located centromeric to a complement C4 gene C4B and C4A respectively, in an organization suggesting tandem duplication of a CYP21 + C4 unit. Such an organization has been considered to facilitate gene deletion and addition events by unequal(More)
Members of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) family, a large group of polymorphic receptors expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, recognize particular peptide-laden human leukocyte antigen (pHLA) class I molecules and have a pivotal role in innate immune responses. Allelic variation and extensive polymorphism within the three-domain KIR(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are thought to play a crucial role in the termination of the acute primary HIV-1 syndrome, but clear evidence for this presumption has been lacking. Here we demonstrate positive selection of HIV-1 proviral sequences encoding variants within a CTL epitope in Nef, a gene product critical for viral pathogenicity, during and after(More)
Human natural killer (NK) cells are functionally regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their interactions with HLA class I molecules. As KIR expression in a given NK cell is genetically hard-wired, we hypothesized that KIR repertoire perturbations reflect expansions of unique NK-cell subsets and may be used to trace adaptation of(More)
Vaccinia virus immunization provides lifelong protection against smallpox, but the mechanisms of this exquisite protection are unknown. We used polychromatic flow cytometry to characterize the functional and phenotypic profile of CD8(+) T cells induced by vaccinia virus immunization in a comparative vaccine trial of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)(More)
Because of a preconceived notion that eliminating reactive metabolite (RM) formation with new drug candidates could mitigate the risk of idiosyncratic drug toxicity, the potential for RM formation is routinely examined as part of lead optimization efforts in drug discovery. Likewise, avoidance of "structural alerts" is almost a norm in drug design. However,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The immunoinhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) is up-regulated on dysfunctional virus-specific CD8 T cells during chronic viral infections, and blockade of PD-1/PD-ligand (PD-L) interactions can restore their function. As hepatitis C virus (HCV) persists in the liver with immune-mediated disease pathogenesis, we examined the role(More)