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Measurements of surface reflectance of permanently shadowed areas near Mercury's north pole reveal regions of anomalously dark and bright deposits at 1064-nanometer wavelength. These reflectance anomalies are concentrated on poleward-facing slopes and are spatially collocated with areas of high radar backscatter postulated to be the result of near-surface(More)
Thermal models for the north polar region of Mercury, calculated from topographic measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, show that the spatial distribution of regions of high radar backscatter is well matched by the predicted distribution of thermally stable water ice. MESSENGER(More)
[1] We present new laboratory thermal infrared emissivity spectra of the major silicate minerals identified on the Moon measured under lunar environmental conditions and evaluate their application to lunar remote sensing data sets. Thermal infrared spectral changes between ambient and lunar environmental conditions are characterized for the first time over(More)
The Infrared Thermal Mappers aboard the two Viking orbiters obtained solar reflectance and infrared emission measurements of the Martian north and south polar regions during an entire Mars year. The observations were used to determine annual radiation budgets, infer annual carbon dioxide frost budgets, and constrain spring season surface and atmospheric(More)
Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment surface-temperature maps reveal the existence of widespread surface and near-surface cryogenic regions that extend beyond the boundaries of persistent shadow. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) struck one of the coldest of these regions, where subsurface temperatures are estimated to be 38 kelvin.(More)
We obtained direct global measurements of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. Most lunar terrains have spectral signatures that are consistent with known lunar anorthosite and basalt compositions. However, the data have also revealed the presence of highly(More)
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner instrument detected a thermal emission signature 90 seconds after the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur impact and on two subsequent orbits. The impact heated a region of 30 to 200 square meters to at least 950 kelvin, providing a sustained heat source for the sublimation of up to(More)
Introduction: The 2007 Phoenix Lander is designed to touch down on the high northern latitudes of Mars to characterize the surface, acquire and analyze samples of soil and ice, and monitor atmospheric conditions. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) are critical phases of the mission and require knowledge of specific atmospheric and surface characteristics for(More)