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AIM To carry out a pilot study to investigate the effect of short-term oral probiotic administration on the metabolism of sulfasalazine (SSZ) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) stabilized on SSZ. METHODS Twelve subjects with RA taking stable doses of SSZ for a minimum of 3 months prior to the study, received a probiotic preparation contained three(More)
The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa(More)
Phylogeny reconstruction is challenging when branch lengths vary and when different genetic loci show conflicting signals. The number of DNA sequence characters required to obtain robust support for all the nodes in a phylogeny becomes greater with denser taxon sampling. We test the usefulness of an approach mixing densely sampled, variable non-coding(More)
Probiotics are live microorganisms claimed to exert beneficial effects on the host. This study investigated their effect on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of sulfasalazine (SSZ), a drug whose efficacy depends on metabolism by azoreductase (AR) in the gut microbiota to sulfapyridine (SP) and 5-acetylsalicylic acid (5-ASA). The probiotic strains(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Badnaviruses and their host-integrated DNA occur in tropical crops and a few northern temperate species. Following the discovery of a badnavirus on a subantarctic island with floristic links to New Zealand, we postulated that badnaviruses exist in the New Zealand flora. Badnavirus reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences consist of variable(More)
The first collection of a macrofungal agaric species, with morphological features similar to already described Anamika species, has been found in association with animal bones in north Queensland, Australia. This species also shares features with several, commonly occurring and previously described Australian Hebeloma species. An integrated morphological(More)
Cortinarius peraurantiacus is a truffle-like fungus associated with Leptospermum. In the protologue of this species, a second, morphologically different but closely related form is mentioned, found in association with Nothofagus s.l. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences indicates that both the Leptospermum-associated and Nothofagus-associated forms are(More)
The dispersal of rhizomes by waves and ocean currents allows invasive coastal plants to spread rapidly over long distances. Long-term management of these species should recognise the potential for regeneration from rhizome fragments and the likelihood of invasion or reinvasion of dunes. Here, we assess the sprouting ability of Ammophila arenaria (marram(More)
Descolea majestatica is an agaric with features described as intermediate between the genera Descolea Singer and Rozites P. Karst. (≡ Cortinarius). Molecular phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large ribosomal subunit (LSU) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) sequences indicates that D. majestatica is(More)