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Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to develop heroin addiction by analyzing 1350 variants in 130 candidate genes. All subjects had Caucasian ancestry. The sample consisted of 412 former severe heroin addicts in(More)
Genetic variation may partially underlie complex personality and physiological traits--such as impulsivity, risk taking and stress responsivity--as well as a substantial proportion of vulnerability to addictive diseases. Furthermore, personality and physiological traits themselves may differentially affect the various stages of addiction, defined(More)
Opiate and cocaine addictions are major social and medical problems that impose a significant burden on society. Despite the size and scope of these problems, there are few effective treatments for these addictions. Methadone maintenance is an effective and most widely used treatment for opiate addiction, allowing normalization of many physiological(More)
Dynorphin peptides and the kappa-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding properties of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol. We tested polymorphisms of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) for association with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in the promoter region, exon 4 coding,(More)
Drug addiction is a complex disorder that has a large spectrum of causes. Vulnerability to addiction has been shown in twin studies to have a robust genetic component. This genetic basis for addiction has general and specific components for each drug abused. Although many genes have been implicated in drug addiction, only a handful have either been(More)
The most common single nucleotide polymorphism in the coding region of the human mu opioid receptor gene is the A118G variant, an adenine to guanine transition at nucleotide position 118 of the coding sequence of the gene. This polymorphism codes for an asparagine to aspartic acid substitution at amino acid 40 in the amino-terminus, thereby removing a(More)
Alterations in the expression of multiple genes in many brain regions are likely to contribute to psychostimulant-induced behaviours. Microarray technology provides a powerful tool for the simultaneous interrogation of gene expression levels of a large number of genes. Several recent experimental studies, reviewed here, demonstrate the power, limitations(More)
The mu-opioid receptor is the site of action of opiates and opioids. We examined whether there are differences in cytosine:guanine (CpG) dinucleotide methylation in the OPRM1 promoter between former heroin addicts and controls. We analyzed methylation at 16 CpG dinucleotides in DNA obtained from lymphocytes of 194 Caucasian former severe heroin addicts(More)
Evidence indicates that individuals with the 5-HTTLPR variant short/short genotype have increased sensitivity to both positive and negative perceptions of perceived social support. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association among Veterans in the context of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). As part of a larger TBI center, we performed a(More)
A genome-wide association study was conducted using microarray technology to identify genes that may be associated with the vulnerability to develop heroin addiction, using DNA from 104 individual former severe heroin addicts (meeting Federal criteria for methadone maintenance) and 101 individual control subjects, all Caucasian. Using separate analyses for(More)