David A. M. C. van de Vijver

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Programs that monitor local, national, and regional levels of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance inform treatment guidelines and provide feedback on the success of HIV-1 treatment and prevention programs. To accurately compare transmitted drug resistance rates across geographic regions and times, the World Health Organization has recommended the adoption of(More)
BACKGROUND The role of environmental contamination in nosocomial cross-transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has been unresolved. Using vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) as a marker organism, we investigated the effects of improved environmental cleaning with and without promotion of hand hygiene adherence on the spread of VRE in a medical(More)
The swine-origin A(H1N1) influenza virus that has emerged in humans in early 2009 has raised concerns about pandemic developments. In a ferret pathogenesis and transmission model, the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus was found to be more pathogenic than a seasonal A(H1N1) virus, with more extensive virus replication occurring in the respiratory tract.(More)
The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence(More)
BACKGROUND New WHO guidelines recommend ART initiation for HIV-positive persons with CD4 cell counts ≤500 cells/µL, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers must consider whether to further expand ART eligibility accordingly. METHODS We used multiple independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa, Zambia,(More)
A substantial number of studies have been performed across the world to determine transmitted drug resistance. Large variations between different parts of the world can be expected because of differences in availability over time of treatment. Time trend analyses are often not possible because of small numbers of included patients. In this review, we(More)
BACKGROUND Regional and subtype-specific mutational patterns of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) are essential for informing first-line antiretroviral (ARV) therapy guidelines and designing diagnostic assays for use in regions where standard genotypic resistance testing is not affordable. We sought to understand the molecular epidemiology of TDR and(More)
The emergence of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza showed the importance of rapid assessment of the degree of immunity in the population, the rate of asymptomatic infection, the spread of infection in households, effects of control measures, and ability of candidate vaccines to produce a response in different age groups. A limitation lies in the available(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can impair the response to combination therapy. Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis. METHODS We determined the baseline rate of drug(More)
This study documented the HIV-1 subtype distribution in 2 Belgian hospitals and determined predictive demographics for non-B subtypes. Overall, subtype B was the most prevalent subtype in this population, followed by subtypes A and C. Several recombinants were detected, circulating recombinants as well as new ones. We found a rise in non-B subtypes from 0%(More)