David A. Long

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OBJECTIVE Cross-sectional studies of optical coherence tomography (OCT) show that retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness is reduced in multiple sclerosis (MS) and correlates with visual function. We determined how longitudinal changes in RNFL thickness relate to visual loss. We also examined patterns of RNFL thinning over time in MS eyes with and(More)
Ureteric contractions propel foetal urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder. Here, we show that mouse ureteric smooth muscle cell (SMC) precursors express the transcription factor teashirt 3 (TSHZ3), and that Tshz3-null mutant mice have congenital hydronephrosis without anatomical obstruction. Ex vivo, the spontaneous contractions that occurred in(More)
Urinary voiding dysfunction in childhood, manifesting as incontinence, dysuria, and urinary frequency, is a common condition. Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by facial grimacing when attempting to smile and failure of the urinary bladder to void completely despite a lack of anatomical bladder outflow obstruction(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world (1) and is characterized by abnormal angiogenesis driven by several factors, including tissue ischemia and hyperglycemia. This abnormal angiogenesis results in new vessels that are often immature and play a pathological role in retinopathy, contributing to both vitreous hemorrhage(More)
Angiopoietins are a family of growth factors, the best studied being angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1), which binds to and tyrosine-phosphorylates endothelial Tie-2, causing enhanced survival and cell-cell stabilization. Ang-2 and Tie-1 downregulate Ang-1-induced Tie-2 signaling, and angiopoietin actions are further modified by vascular endothelial growth factor A and(More)
The loss of interstitial capillaries is a feature of several experimental models of renal disease and this contributes to secondary kidney injury. Angiopoietin-1 is a secreted growth factor which binds to Tie-2 present on endothelia to enhance cell survival thereby stabilizing capillary architecture in-vitro. Previous studies showed that angiopoietin-1(More)
Cardiovascular disease begins early in the course of renal decline and is a life-limiting problem in patients with CKD. The increased burden of cardiovascular disease is due, at least in part, to calcification of the vessel wall. The uremic milieu provides a perfect storm of risk factors for accelerated calcification, but elevated calcium and phosphate(More)
IL-10 is a pluripotent cytokine that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Whereas short-term administration of IL-10 has shown benefit in acute glomerulonephritis, no studies have addressed the potential benefits of IL-10 in chronic renal disease. Chronically elevated blood levels of IL-10 in rats were achieved by(More)
Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1B (HNF1B), which is a transcription factor expressed in tissues including renal epithelia, associate with abnormal renal development. While studying renal phenotypes of children with HNF1B mutations, we identified a teenager who presented with tetany and hypomagnesemia. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic and(More)
An intact genome is essential for kidney growth and differentiation, but less is known about whether, and how, an altered fetal milieu modifies these processes. Maternal low-protein diets perturb growth of the metanephros, the precursor of the mature kidney. Fetal corticosteroid overexposure may, in part, mediate this, because such diets downregulate(More)