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Articular cartilage is subjected to dynamic compressive loading that is known to influence chondrocyte metabolism. While the exact signalling mechanisms are unclear, it has been proposed that cell deformation plays a role and may stimulate a metabolic response through distinctive pathways. In this study, a well characterized model system in which(More)
CATH version 3.5 (Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology, available at http://www.cathdb.info/) contains 173 536 domains, 2626 homologous superfamilies and 1313 fold groups. When focusing on structural genomics (SG) structures, we observe that the number of new folds for CATH v3.5 is slightly less than for previous releases, and this observation suggests(More)
Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of phytochelatins, which are a family of cysteine-rich thiol-reactive peptides believed to play important roles in processing many thiol-reactive toxicants. A modified Arabidopsis thaliana PCS sequence (AtPCS1) was active in Escherichia coli. When AtPCS1 was overexpressed in(More)
Phytochelatin synthases (PCS) mediate cellular heavy-metal resistance in plants, fungi, and worms. However, phytochelatins (PCs) are generally considered to function as intracellular heavy-metal detoxification mechanisms, and whether long-distance transport of PCs occurs during heavy-metal detoxification remains unknown. Here, wheat TaPCS1 cDNA expression(More)
We report the latest release (version 1.6) of the CATH protein domains database (http://www.biochem.ucl. ac.uk/bsm/cath ). This is a hierarchical classification of 18 577 domains into evolutionary families and structural groupings. We have identified 1028 homo-logous superfamilies in which the proteins have both structural, and sequence or functional(More)
The latest version of the CATH-Gene3D protein structure classification database (4.0, http://www.cathdb.info) provides annotations for over 235,000 protein domain structures and includes 25 million domain predictions. This article provides an update on the major developments in the 2 years since the last publication in this journal including: significant(More)
During physiological loading, a tendon is subjected to tensile strains in the region of up to 6 per cent. These strains are reportedly transmitted to cells, potentially initiating specific mechanotransduction pathways. The present study examines the local strain fields within tendon fascicles subjected to tensile strain in order to determine the mechanisms(More)
This study tests the hypothesis that dynamic compressive strain selectively enhances chondrogenic differentiation by human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Primary MSCs were isolated and expended in monolayer culture. The cells were seeded in alginate constructs or in pellet culture. The time course of chondrogenic differentiation was assessed by real-time(More)
Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS), familial cylindromatosis (FC), and multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT), originally described as distinct entities, share overlapping clinical findings. Patients with BSS are predisposed to multiple skin appendage tumors such as cylindroma, trichoepithelioma, and spiradenoma. FC, however, is characterized by cylindromas(More)
The CATH database of protein domain structures (http://www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/cath/) currently contains 43,229 domains classified into 1467 superfamilies and 5107 sequence families. Each structural family is expanded with sequence relatives from GenBank and completed genomes, using a variety of efficient sequence search protocols and reliable thresholds.(More)