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The role of carnosine, N-acetylcarnosine and homocarnosine as scavengers of reactive oxygen species and protectors against neuronal cell death secondary to excitotoxic concentrations of kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate was studied using acutely dissociated cerebellar granule cell neurons and flow cytometry. We find that carnosine, N-acetylcarnosine and(More)
IL-33 is a novel member of the IL-1 cytokine family and a potent inducer of type 2 immunity, as mast cells and Th2 CD4+ T cells respond to IL-33 with the induction of type 2 cytokines such as IL-13. IL-33 mRNA levels are extremely high in the CNS, and CNS glia possess both subunits of the IL-33R, yet whether IL-33 is produced by and affects CNS glia has not(More)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense against infection, protecting the host during the development of adaptive immunity and critically affecting the nature of the adaptive response. We show that, in contrast to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), the related protein TWEAK attenuates the transition from innate to adaptive mechanisms. TWEAK-/-(More)
Protein folding by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is physiologically critical; its disruption causes ER stress and augments disease. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. If stress persists, the UPR induces apoptotic cell death, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that unmitigated ER stress promoted(More)
BALB/c mice exposed to acute cold/restraint stress (ACRS) had significantly lower host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) than controls. The stress hormones corticosterone (CORT) and norepinephrine (NE), which are known to modulate immune responses, were evaluated as the cause of the decline in immune defense. The involvement of CORT and NE was(More)
We previously reported that acute cold/restraint stress (ACRS) significantly inhibits host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) in BALB/c mice and that the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in this inhibition. Here, we have further investigated the involvement of adrenergic receptor (ADR) subtypes. beta-ADR antagonist propranolol, but not(More)
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information(More)
We conducted kinetic studies to evaluate the effects of acute cold/restraint stress (ACRS) on both primary and secondary host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes (LM). The involvement of IL-6 also was investigated using IL-6 knockout (KO) mice on the BALB/c background. ACRS dramatically increased the serum corticosterone levels, indicating that ACRS(More)
Cell-surface death receptors such as DR4 and DR5 trigger apoptosis through a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) that recruits the apical protease caspase-8. Apoptosis commitment requires efficient activation and autocatalytic release of caspase-8 into the cytoplasm to engage executioner caspases. While DISC recruitment initiates caspase-8 stimulation,(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the mechanism of manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity involves activation of microglia and/or astrocytes; as a consequence, neurons adjacent to the activated microglia may be injured. Mn modulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression by microglia has not been investigated. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to (1)(More)