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Cocaine addiction is thought to involve persistent neurobiological changes that facilitate relapse to drug use despite efforts to abstain. But the propensity for relapse may be reduced by extinction training--a form of inhibitory learning that progressively reduces cocaine-seeking behaviour in the absence of cocaine reward. Here we show that extinction(More)
RATIONALE Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in regulating drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors, but the role of D(1)- and D(2)-like receptors in this regulation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES Our objective was to study the role of NAc D(1)- and D(2)-like receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior and(More)
Individual differences in locomotor responses to novelty and psychostimulants, and sensitization following repeated drug exposure, predict increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants and are thought to underlie vulnerability to drug addiction. This study tested whether these factors determine another core feature of drug addiction,(More)
Endocannabinoids are released in response to pathogenic insults, and inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation enhance such on-demand responses that promote cellular protection. Here, AM374 (palmitylsulfonyl fluoride), an irreversible inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), was injected i.p. into rats to test for endocannabinoid enhancement. AM374(More)
Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is known to modulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in the mesolimbic dopamine system. In this study, 12 d of cocaine self-administration in rats (4 hr/d) reduced TH immunoreactivity by 29% in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, but not core, after a 1 week withdrawal period. In contrast, TH immunoreactivity in the NAc(More)
Selective D1 dopamine agonists represent a potential pharmacotherapy for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Here we report that systemic injections of the novel D1 agonist ABT-431 lack the ability to induce cocaine-seeking behavior, and completely attenuate the ability of cocaine to induce this behavior in rats tested in a reinstatement paradigm. Similar(More)
Recent cannabinoid research has a primary focus on developing therapeutics against human diseases. Many studies on cannabinoids indicate important progress for protection against several neurodegenerative disorders. Agonists of cannabinoid receptors activate signalling pathways in the brain that are linked to neuronal repair and cell maintenance, and(More)
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor allows endocannabinoids to act as intercellular and retrograde messengers in the central nervous system. Endocannabinoid actions have been implicated in both synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Here, cannabinergic activation of extracellular signal regulated-kinase (ERK) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) occurred(More)
The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to elicit signals that defend against several disease states including excitotoxic brain damage. Besides direct activation with CB1 receptor agonists, cannabinergic signaling can be modulated through inhibition of endocannabinoid transport and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), two mechanisms of endocannabinoid(More)
The over-activation of glutamate receptors can lead to excitotoxic cell death and is believed to be involved in the progression of neurodegenerative events in the vulnerable hippocampus. Here, we used an in vitro slice model to study toxicity produced in the hippocampus by the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP). The organotypic slice cultures(More)