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Tomato Cf genes confer resistance to C. fulvum, reside in complex loci carrying multiple genes, and encode predicted membrane-bound proteins with extracytoplasmic leucine-rich repeats. At least two Cf-9 homologs confer novel C. fulvum resistance specificities. Comparison of 11 genes revealed 7 hypervariable amino acid positions in a motif of the(More)
In plants, resistance to pathogens is frequently determined by dominant resistance genes, whose products are proposed to recognize pathogen-encoded avirulence gene (Avr) products. The tomato resistance locus Cf-2 was isolated by positional cloning and found to contain two almost identical genes, each conferring resistance to isolates of tomato leaf mould(More)
Plants have the capacity to recognise and reject pathogens at various stages of their attempted colonisation of the plant. Non-specific rejection often arises as a consequence of the potential pathogen's attempt to breach the first lines of plant defence. Pathogens able to penetrate beyond this barrier of non-host resistance may seek a subtle and persuasive(More)
Recently recognised structural and amino acid sequence similarities between plant disease resistance (R) proteins and animal proteins such as Apaf-1 and CED-4 are providing conceptual models for resistance protein function. Data from extensive DNA sequencing of resistance gene families are indicating that the leucine-rich repeat motif is an important(More)
Raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) are synthesized by a set of galactosyltransferases, which sequentially add galactose units from galactinol to sucrose. The accumulation of RFOs was studied in maturing seeds of two pea (Pisum sativum) lines with contrasting RFO composition. Seeds of the line SD1 accumulated stachyose as the predominant RFO, whereas(More)
Cytoplasmic aggregation, the rapid translocation of cytoplasm and subcellular components to the site of pathogen penetration, is one of the earliest reactions of plant cells against attack by microorganisms. We have investigated cytoplasmic aggregation during Arabidopsis-oomycete interactions. Infection by non-pathogenic Phytophthora sojae was prevented in(More)
We are developing a system for isolating tomato genes by transposon mutagenesis. In maize and tobacco, the transposon Activator (Ac) transposes preferentially to genetically linked sites. To identify transposons linked to various target genes, we have determined the RFLP map locations of Ac- and Dissociation (Ds)-carrying T-DNAs in a number of(More)
Translocation of pathogen effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm is a key determinant for the pathogenicity of many bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens. A number of secreted fungal avirulence (Avr) proteins are also inferred to be delivered into host cells, based on their intracellular recognition by host resistance proteins, including those of(More)
The Arabidopsis RIN4 protein mediates interaction between the Pseudomonas syringae type III effector proteins AvrB, AvrRpm1, and AvrRpt2 and the Arabidopsis disease-resistance proteins RPM1 and RPS2. Confocal laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy following particle bombardment of tobacco leaf epidermal cells was used to examine the subcellular localization(More)
Sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that function as transcription factors are frequently encoded by gene families. Such proteins display highly conserved DNA binding properties, yet are expected to retain promoter selectivity. In this report we investigate this problem using the ets gene family, a group of metazoan genes whose members regulate cell(More)