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The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the(More)
Metastasis of breast cancer occurs primarily through the lymphatic system, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic factor for the disease. Whereas the significance of angiogenesis for tumor progression has been well documented, the ability of tumor cells to induce the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) and the presence of(More)
Lymphatic vessels are essential for immune surveillance, tissue fluid homeostasis and fat absorption. Defects in lymphatic vessel formation or function cause lymphedema. Here we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is required for the initial steps in lymphatic development. In Vegfc-/- mice, endothelial cells commit to the lymphatic(More)
The lymphatic vasculature transports extravasated tissue fluid, macromolecules and cells back into the blood circulation. Recent reports have focused on the molecular mechanisms regulating the lymphatic vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D have been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis and their receptor, VEGFR-3, has been linked(More)
The homeodomain has been implicated as a major determinant of biological specificity for the homeotic selector (HOM) genes. We compare here the DNA sequence preferences of homeodomains encoded by four of the eight Drosophila HOM proteins. One of the four, Abdominal-B, binds preferentially to a sequence with an unusual 5'-T-T-A-T-3' core, whereas the other(More)
The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key substrate for cell migration in tissues during inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia. Unlike other matrix components, hyaluronan (HA) is turned over rapidly, yet most degradation occurs not locally but within distant lymph nodes, through mechanisms that are not yet understood. While it is not clear which(More)
Metastasis is a frequent and lethal complication of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a recently described lymphangiogenic factor. Increased expression of VEGF-C in primary tumours correlates with dissemination of tumour cells to regional lymph nodes. However, a direct role for VEGF-C in tumour lymphangiogenesis and subsequent(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial participants in maintaining immune surveillance of the periphery and initiating primary immune responses within the draining lymph nodes. The afferent lymphatic vessels provide a conduit for this essential trafficking and, as this review will describe, play an active role in regulating DC migration. Afferent lymphatic(More)
The CD44 molecule is known to display extensive size heterogeneity, which has been attributed both to alternative splicing and to differential glycosylation within the extracellular domain. Although the presence of several alternative exons has been partly inferred from cDNA sequencing, the precise intron-exon organization of the CD44 gene has not been(More)
The process of angiogenesis has been well documented, but little is known about the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells and the molecular mechanisms controlling lymphangiogenesis. The homeobox gene Prox1 is expressed in a subpopulation of endothelial cells that, after budding from veins, gives rise to the mammalian lymphatic system. In Prox1(-)(/-)(More)