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The limited vessel-forming capacity of infused endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into patients with cardiovascular dysfunction may be related to a misunderstanding of the biologic potential of the cells. EPCs are generally identified by cell surface antigen expression or counting in a commercially available kit that identifies "endothelial cell(More)
Emerging evidence to support the use of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for angiogenic therapies or as biomarkers to assess cardiovascular disease risk and progression is compelling. However, there is no uniform definition of an EPC, which makes interpretation of these studies difficult. Although hallmarks of stem and progenitor cells are their ability(More)
Interactions between tumorigenic cells and their surrounding microenvironment are critical for tumor progression yet remain incompletely understood. Germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder characterized by complex tumors called neurofibromas. Genetic studies indicate that biallelic(More)
F rom the paradigm shifting observations of Harvey, Mal-pighi, and van Leeuwenhoek, blood vessels have become recognized as distinct and dynamic tissue entities that merge with the heart to form a closed circulatory system. 1 Vessel structures are comprised predominantly of a luminal layer of endothelial cells that is surrounded by some form of basement(More)
In the past decade, researchers have gained important insights on the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in adult neovascularization. A subset of BM-derived cells, called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), has been of particular interest, as these cells were suggested to home to sites of neovascularization and neoendothelialization and differentiate(More)
The field of vascular biology has been stimulated by the concept that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play a role in neoangiogenesis (postnatal vasculogenesis). One problem for the field has been the difficulty in accurately defining an EPC. Likewise, circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are not well defined. The lack of a detailed(More)
Senescence of endothelial cells increases with systemic aging and is thought to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Cell therapy with highly proliferative endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is an emerging therapeutic option to promote endothelial regeneration, but little is known about their senescence and their vulnerability to inflammatory(More)
Attempts to measure phonological acquisition have largely focused on segments, with less effort made to examine whole-word productions. This article proposes four measures designed to estimate a child's whole-word abilities: 1. the phonological mean length of utterance, a measure of whole-word complexity for both child and target words, 2. the proportion of(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that intravenous administration of large doses of Fluosol, a perfluorochemical preparation, reduced infarct size 24 h after reperfusion, an effect that was associated with reduced neutrophil infiltration. The effect of a clinically tolerable dose of Fluosol on infarct size after a prolonged period of reperfusion and its(More)
OBJECTIVE Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are used for angiogenic therapies or as biomarkers to assess cardiovascular disease risk. However, there is no uniform definition of an EPC, which confounds EPC studies. EPCs are widely described as cells that coexpress the cell-surface antigens CD34, AC133, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(More)