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The limited vessel-forming capacity of infused endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into patients with cardiovascular dysfunction may be related to a misunderstanding of the biologic potential of the cells. EPCs are generally identified by cell surface antigen expression or counting in a commercially available kit that identifies "endothelial cell(More)
The field of vascular biology has been stimulated by the concept that circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play a role in neoangiogenesis (postnatal vasculogenesis). One problem for the field has been the difficulty in accurately defining an EPC. Likewise, circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are not well defined. The lack of a detailed(More)
In the past decade, researchers have gained important insights on the role of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in adult neovascularization. A subset of BM-derived cells, called endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), has been of particular interest, as these cells were suggested to home to sites of neovascularization and neoendothelialization and differentiate(More)
Emerging evidence to support the use of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) for angiogenic therapies or as biomarkers to assess cardiovascular disease risk and progression is compelling. However, there is no uniform definition of an EPC, which makes interpretation of these studies difficult. Although hallmarks of stem and progenitor cells are their ability(More)
F rom the paradigm shifting observations of Harvey, Mal-pighi, and van Leeuwenhoek, blood vessels have become recognized as distinct and dynamic tissue entities that merge with the heart to form a closed circulatory system. 1 Vessel structures are comprised predominantly of a luminal layer of endothelial cells that is surrounded by some form of basement(More)
Interactions between tumorigenic cells and their surrounding microenvironment are critical for tumor progression yet remain incompletely understood. Germline mutations in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene cause neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder characterized by complex tumors called neurofibromas. Genetic studies indicate that biallelic(More)
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be isolated from adult peripheral and umbilical cord blood and expanded exponentially ex vivo. In contrast, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) derived from vessel walls are widely considered to be differentiated, mature endothelial cells (ECs). However, similar to(More)
OBJECTIVE Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are used for angiogenic therapies or as biomarkers to assess cardiovascular disease risk. However, there is no uniform definition of an EPC, which confounds EPC studies. EPCs are widely described as cells that coexpress the cell-surface antigens CD34, AC133, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(More)
Cell therapy with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is an emerging therapeutic option to promote angiogenesis or endothelial repair. Although the release of angiogenic paracrine factors is known to contribute to their therapeutic effect, little is known about their release of proinflammatory factors and expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules.(More)
Since 1997, postnatal vasculogenesis has been purported to be an important mechanism for neoangiogenesis via bone marrow (BM)-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Based on this paradigm, EPCs have been extensively studied as biomarkers to assess severity of cardiovascular disease and as a cell-based therapy for several human(More)