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We present a general phenomenological theory for chemical to mechanical energy transduction by motor enzymes which is based on the classical "tight-coupling" mechanism. The associated minimal stochastic model takes explicitly into account both ATP hydrolysis and thermal noise effects. It provides expressions for the hydrolysis rate and the sliding velocity,(More)
We have studied the ordering dynamics of the striped patterns of a single layer of cylindrical block copolymer microdomains in a thin film. By tracking disclinations during annealing with time-lapse atomic force microscopy, we observe a dominant mechanism of disclination annihilation involving three or four disclinations (quadrupoles). Pairwise disclination(More)
Classical hard spheres crystallize at equilibrium at high enough density. Crystals made up of stackings of 2-dimensional hexagonal close-packed layers (e.g. f cc , hcp , etc.) differ in entropy by only about 10 −3 k B per sphere (all configurations are degenerate in energy). To readily resolve and study these small entropy differences, we have implemented(More)
We study classical hard-core dimer models on three-dimensional lattices using analytical approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. On the bipartite cubic lattice, a local gauge field generalization of the height representation used on the square lattice predicts that the dimers are in a critical Coulomb phase with algebraic, dipolar correlations, in excellent(More)
We report a Monte Carlo study of the effects of fluctuations in the bond distribution of Ising spin glasses in a transverse magnetic field, in the paramagnetic phase in the T → 0 limit. Rare, strong fluctuations give rise to Griffiths singu-larities, which can dominate the zero-temperature behavior of these quantum systems, as originally demonstrated by(More)
We use the density matrix renormalization group to perform accurate calculations of the ground state of the nearest-neighbor quantum spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice. We study this model on numerous long cylinders with circumferences up to 12 lattice spacings. Through a combination of very-low-energy and small finite-size(More)
Proofreading mechanisms increase specificity in biochemical reactions by allowing for the dissociation of intermediate complexes. These mechanisms disrupt and reset the reaction to undo errors at the cost of increased time of reaction and free energy expenditure. Here, we draw an analogy between proofreading and microtubule growth which share some of the(More)
We have followed the coarsening dynamics of a single layer of cylindrical block copolymer microdomains in a thin film. This system has the symmetry of a two-dimensional smectic. The orientational correlation length of the microdomains was measured by scanning electron microscopy and found to grow with the average spacing between +/-1/2 disclinations,(More)
We use ideas from kinetic proofreading, an error-correcting mechanism in biology, to identify new kinetic regimes in non-equilibrium systems. These regimes are defined by the sensitivity of the occupancy of a state of the system to a change in its energy. In biological contexts, higher sensitivity corresponds to stronger discrimination between molecular(More)
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices have great potential to contribute to a better understanding of some of the most important issues in many-body physics, such as high-temperature superconductivity. The Hubbard model--a simplified representation of fermions moving on a periodic lattice--is thought to describe the essential details of copper oxide(More)