David A. Hovda

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OBJECTIVE: To review the underlying pathophysiologic processes of concussive brain injury and relate these neurometabolic changes to clinical sports-related issues such as injury to the developing brain, overuse injury, and repeated concussion. DATA SOURCES: Over 100 articles from both basic science and clinical medical literature selected for relevance to(More)
This article comprehensively reviews the lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in small animal species with particular emphasis on its validity, clinical relevance and reliability. The LFP model, initially described in 1989, has become the most extensively utilized animal model of TBI (to date, 232 PubMed citations), producing(More)
An increase in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]c) of the rat hippocampus following fluid-percussion concussive brain injury was demonstrated with microdialysis. The role of neuronal discharge was examined with in situ administration of 0.1 mM tetrodotoxin, a potent depressant of neuronal discharges, and of 0.5 to 20 mM cobalt, a blocker of Ca++(More)
Astrocytes respond to traumatic brain injury (TBI) by altered gene expression, hypertrophy and proliferation that occur in a gradated fashion in relation to the severity of the injury. Both beneficial and detrimental effects have been attributed to reactive astrocytes, but their roles after brain injury are not well understood. To investigate these roles,(More)
OBJECT The early pathophysiological features of traumatic brain injury observed in the intensive care unit (ICU) have been described in terms of altered cerebral blood flow, altered brain metabolism, and neurochemical excitotoxicity. Seizures occur in animal models of brain injury and in human brain injury. Previous studies of posttraumatic seizures in(More)
Brain trauma is accompanied by regional alterations of brain metabolism, reduction in metabolic rates and possible energy crisis. We hypothesize that microdialysis markers of energy crisis are present during the critical period of intensive care despite the absence of brain ischemia. In all, 19 brain injury patients (mean GCS 6) underwent combined positron(More)
The extent and timing of posttraumatic cerebral hemodynamic disturbances have significant implications for the monitoring and treatment of patients with head injury. This prospective study of cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured using 133Xe clearance) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) measurements in 125 patients with severe head trauma has defined three(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000, the highest of any developed country in the world. This(More)
Experimental traumatic brain injury studies have shown that cerebral hyperglycolysis is a pathophysiological response to injury-induced ionic and neurochemical cascades. This finding has important implications regarding cellular viability, vulnerability to secondary insults, and the functional capability of affected regions. Prior to this study,(More)
Disturbed glucose brain metabolism after brain trauma is reflected by changes in extracellular glucose levels. The authors hypothesized that posttraumatic reductions in extracellular glucose levels are not due to ischemia and are associated with poor outcome. Intracerebral microdialysis, electroencephalography, and measurements of brain tissue oxygen levels(More)