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We have used the combination of single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and kinetic synchrotron radiation circular dichroism experiments to probe the conformational ensemble of the collapsed unfolded state of the small cold shock protein CspTm under near-native conditions. This regime is physiologically most relevant but difficult to access(More)
— Angular electrostatic microactuators suitable for use in a two-stage servo system for magnetic disk drives have been fabricated from molded chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) polysilicon using the HexSil process. A 2.6-mm-diameter device has been shown to be capable of positioning the read/write elements of a 30% picoslider over a 6 6 61-m range, with a(More)
This paper examines the performance of rotating microdevices incorporating a liquid bearing to couple a rotating element to a fixed substrate. Liquid bearing technology promises to significantly improve the durability and lifetime of micromechanical motors. Here, the fluid is confined between the rotor and stator using surface patterning of a hydrophobic(More)
We have developed a microfluidic mixer optimized for rapid measurements of protein folding kinetics using synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) spectroscopy. The combination of fabrication in fused silica and synchrotron radiation allows measurements at wavelengths below 220 nm, the typical limit of commercial instrumentation. At these(More)
We have developed a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) optical phased array incorporating a high-index-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) for beamforming and beamsteering in a range of ± 1.26° × 1.26°. Our approach needs only a thin single-layer HCG made of silicon, considerably improving its speed thanks to the low mass, and is suitable for high(More)
We present a free-space optical interconnect system capable of dynamic closed-loop optical alignment using a microlens scanner with a proportional integral and derivative controller. Electrostatic microlens scanners based on combdrive actuators are designed and characterized with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) for adap-tive optical beam(More)
We present a high-speed optical beamsteering system based on an 8x8 MEMS phased array. The system incorporates an in situ interferometer that provides a real-time, dynamic measure of the phase of each mirror in the array during beamsteering. A closed-loop phase-control algorithm results in <π/100 mirror phase accuracy and far field beam steering is shown.(More)
We report a high speed 8x8 optical phased array using tunable 1550 nm all-pass filters with ultrathin high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the microelectromechanical-actuated top reflectors. The all-pass filter design enables a highly efficient phase tuning (1.7 π) with a small actuation voltage (10 V) and actuation displacement of the HCG (50 nm). The(More)
We report on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-actuated 32 × 32 optical phased arrays (OPAs) with high fill-factors and microsecond response time. To reduce the mirror weight and temperature-dependent curvature, we use high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirrors comprising a single layer of sub-wavelength polysilicon gratings with 400 nm thickness, 1250 nm(More)