David A. Hartman

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Vitamin A (retinol) is needed by higher animals for the maintenance of normal epithelium and growth, and retinoic acid (1) has been proposed to be the active metabolite. Microbial models are useful for the study of mammalian metabolism of xenobiotics. Two species of the fungal genus Cunninghamella afforded products of greater polarity than 1 when fed 1 in a(More)
In order for a drug to be effective, enough of the active form must reach the target to elicit the desired effect. The first-pass effect for drugs taken orally is well known but the metabolism of drugs in plasma must also be considered during the drug discovery and development process. For instance, hydrolysis of a compound by plasma enzymes can(More)
This review will provide an updated overview of the neuroendocrine response to critical illness. Specifically, the current evidence for "stress steroid" administration will be examined, as well as interventional glucose control during critical illness. The emergency physician will also find relevance in the alterations of thyroid hormones that occur in the(More)
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