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Progressive fibrosis of a tissue or organ in response to a damaging insult may result in loss of organ function if the acute response is excessive, or a chronic fibrotic response is initiated due to the persistence of the insult. In the author's laboratory over the past several years, a number of preclinical models of fibrosis or fibrogenic responses have(More)
The regulatory mechanisms involved in tendon homeostasis and repair are not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrate that the nervous system, in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, through efferent neuronal pathways plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation, and tissue repair processes. Thus, in normal-, healing- and(More)
We present several practical improvements to the interactive evolution of 2D images, some of which are also applicable to more general genetic programming problems. We introduce tree alignments to improve the animation of evolved images when using genetic cross dissolves. The goal of these improvements is to strengthen the interactive evolution toolset and(More)
Denervation degrades normal ligament properties and impairs ligament healing. This suggests that secreted neuromediators, such as neuropeptides, could be modulating cell metabolism in ligament and scar tissue. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of exogenous substance P (SP), neuropeptide Y (NPY) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on(More)
People with osteoarthritis (OA) can have significant pain that interferes with function and quality of life. Women with knee OA have greater pain and greater reductions in function and quality of life than men. In many cases, OA pain is directly related to sensitization and activation of nociceptors in the injured joint and correlates with the degree of(More)
The GPR30, a former orphan GPCR, is a putative membrane estrogen receptor that can activate rapid signaling pathways such as extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in a variety of cells and may contribute to estrogen's effects in the central nervous system. The distribution of GPR30 in the limbic system predicts a role for this receptor in the regulation of(More)
OBJECTIVE Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, and are in part responsible for maintaining tissue integrity. Recently, a progenitor cell population has been found within the synovial fluid that shares many similarities with bone marrow MPCs. These synovial fluid MPCs (sfMPCs) share the ability(More)
Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development), and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that(More)
Modelling load bearing in diarthrodial joints is challenging, due to the complexity of the materials, the boundary and interface conditions and the geometry. The articulating surfaces are covered with cartilage layers that are filled with a fluid that plays a major role in load bearing [Mow, V.C., Holmes, M.H., Lai, W.M. (1984) "Survey article: fluid(More)