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Many cytoplasmic substrates degraded by autophagy have been identified; however, the impact of RNA degradation by autophagy remains uncertain. Retrotransposons comprise 40% of the human genome and are a major source of genetic variation among species, individuals and cells. Retrotransposons replicate via a copy-paste mechanism involving a cytoplasmic RNA(More)
The swimming behaviour of microorganisms can be strongly influenced by the rhe­ ology of their fluid environment. In this manuscript, we experimentally investigate the effects of shear-thinning viscosity on the swimming behaviour of an undula­ tory swimmer, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tracking methods are used to measure the swimmer's kinematic(More)
The E2 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) binds to specific sites in the viral genome to regulate its transcription, replication, and maintenance in infected cells. Like most regulatory proteins, E2 is rapidly turned over. A high-throughput assay was developed to quantify the expression and stability of E2 in vivo, based on its fusion to Renilla(More)
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents of cervical cancer and other human malignancies. HPVs are classified into high- and low-risk genotypes according to their association with cancer. Host cell transformation by high-risk HPVs relies in part on the ability of the viral E6 protein to induce the degradation of p53. We report the(More)
E1-deleted adenovirus vectors (AdV) are important gene transfer vehicles for gene therapy and vaccination. Amplification of AdV must take place in cells that express the adenovirus E1A and E1B genes. Sequence homology between AdV and the E1 genes integrated within the complementing cells should be minimal to reduce the odds of generating(More)
Motivated by the observed coordination of nearby beating cilia, we use a scale model experiment to show that hydrodynamic interactions can cause synchronization between rotating paddles driven at constant torque in a very viscous fluid. Synchronization is only observed when the shafts supporting the paddles have some flexibility. The phase difference in the(More)
UNLABELLED The human papillomavirus (HPV) E1 helicase promotes viral DNA replication through its DNA unwinding activity and association with host factors. The E1 proteins from anogenital HPV types interact with the cellular WD repeat-containing factor UAF1 (formerly known as p80). Specific amino acid substitutions in E1 that impair this interaction inhibit(More)
In functional genomics, the use of expression libraries of DNA variants in combination with potent screening techniques is a powerful tool for gene discovery. They allow study of gene and protein function, generation of peptide variants with novel properties, as well as identification of functional short DNA and RNA motifs. In proteomics, generation of(More)
We describe a tandem Mitsunobu/3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement of allylic azides on a chiral auxiliary system that favors one regioisomer thanks to its exceptional steric bias. The sequence may be completed by the oxidative cleavage of the auxiliary or by a ring-closing metathesis reaction that produces a carbo- or heterocycle directly and a recyclable form(More)