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Over the last 20 years, new technology has improved the methods of detection of fetal abnormalities, including Down syndrome. While there are ways to diagnose Down syndrome by obtaining fetal tissue samples by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, it would not be appropriate to examine every pregnancy this way. Besides greatly increasing the cost of(More)
In studies of photoperiodism, animals typically are transferred abruptly from a long (e.g., 16 h light per day [16L]) to a short (8L) photoperiod, and circadian oscillators that regulate pineal melatonin secretion are presumed to reentrain rapidly to the new photocycle. Among rats and Siberian hamsters, however, reentrainment rates vary depending on whether(More)
A photoperiod with a short photophase induces a winterlike phenotype in Siberian hamsters that includes a progressive decrease in food intake and body mass and reproductive organ regression, as well as reversible hypothermia in the form of short-duration torpor. Torpor substantially reduces energy utilization and is not initiated until body mass, fat(More)
Golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) undergo seasonal hibernation during which core body temperature (T(b)) values are maintained 1-2 degrees C above ambient temperature. Hibernation is not continuous. Squirrels arouse at approximately 7-day intervals, during which T(b) increases to 37 degrees C for approximately 16 h; thereafter, they(More)
Quality assurance samples submitted from the NCSBI as part of a contract with TBTG to outsource DNA Database samples showed unexpected discrepancies for the locus D16S539 when all other loci yielded identical results. Discrepancies observed included allele drop out and an imbalance in sister alleles with samples returned from TBTG. This led to a(More)
We investigated the role of declining daylength and gonadal steroids on body weight and food intake in male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). This species was chosen for study because individual males display different reproductive responses to inhibitory daylength. About one-third of all mice exposed to short days undergo testicular regression and(More)
Exposure to low ambient temperatures (Ta) accelerates appearance of the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters transferred from long to short day lengths. Because melatonin transduces the effects of day length on the neuroendocrine axis, the authors assessed whether low Ta promotes the transition to winterlike traits by accelerating the onset of increased(More)
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the(More)
The role of the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus (IGL) in photoperiod responsiveness was examined in a laboratory-selected line of photoperiod nonresponsive (NR) Siberian hamsters. NR hamsters fail to exhibit typical winter-type responses (i.e., gonadal regression and development of winter-type pelage) when exposed to short day lengths (e.g., 10 h of(More)
Groups from three different breeding lines of Siberian hamsters (UNS = general colony animals, PNRa = selected for photoperiod nonresponsiveness as adults, PNRj = selected for photoperiod nonresponsiveness as juveniles) were exposed to short days at weaning and again as adults (Experiment 1) or only as adults (Experiment 2). The proportion of photoperiod(More)