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Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance is a major cause of worldwide increases in malaria mortality and morbidity. Recent laboratory and clinical studies have associated chloroquine resistance with point mutations in the gene pfcrt. However, direct proof of a causal relationship has remained elusive and most models have posited a multigenic basis of(More)
Recent reports of increased tolerance to artemisinin derivatives--the most recently adopted class of antimalarials--have prompted a need for new treatments. The spirotetrahydro-beta-carbolines, or spiroindolones, are potent drugs that kill the blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates at low nanomolar concentration.(More)
Tuberculosis and malaria together result in an estimated 5 million deaths annually. The spread of multidrug resistance in the most pathogenic causative agents, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, underscores the need to identify active compounds with novel inhibitory properties. Although genetically unrelated, both organisms use a type II(More)
BACKGROUND Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is a major and highly effective artemisinin-based combination therapy that is becoming increasingly important as a new first-line therapy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, recrudescences occurring after AL treatment have been reported. Identification of drug-specific parasite determinants that contribute(More)
Recent studies have highlighted the importance of a parasite protein referred to as the chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) in the molecular basis of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the quinoline antimalarials. PfCRT, an integral membrane protein with 10 predicted transmembrane domains, is a member of the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily(More)
Malaria parasites elude eradication attempts both within the human host and across nations. At the individual level, parasites evade the host immune responses through antigenic variation. At the global level, parasites escape drug pressure through single nucleotide variants and gene copy amplification events conferring drug resistance. Despite their(More)
Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, the former gold standard antimalarial drug, is mediated primarily by mutant forms of the chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT). These mutations impart upon PfCRT the ability to efflux chloroquine from the intracellular digestive vacuole, the site of drug action. Recent studies reveal that PfCRT variants(More)
There are still approximately 500 million cases of malaria and 1 million deaths from malaria each year. Yet recently, malaria incidence has been dramatically reduced in some parts of Africa by increasing deployment of anti-mosquito measures and new artemisinin-containing treatments, prompting renewed calls for global eradication. However, treatment and(More)
The emergence and spread of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum has severely limited the therapeutic options for the treatment of malaria. With ever-increasing failure rates associated with chloroquine or sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment, attention has turned to the few alternatives, which include quinine and mefloquine. Here, we have investigated(More)
Here we report an efficient, site-specific system of genetic integration into Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite chromosomes. This is mediated by mycobacteriophage Bxb1 integrase, which catalyzes recombination between an incoming attP and a chromosomal attB site. We developed P. falciparum lines with the attB site integrated into the glutaredoxin-like(More)