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The structure of the Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein complex was studied by sedimentation gradient centrifugation analyses of detergent-solubilized wild-type and mutant envelope (env) gene products. These studies show that the envelope glycoprotein forms an oligomer during biosynthesis, which is most likely a trimer, and that this is the form of(More)
The development of tissue-selective virus-based vectors requires a better understanding of the role of receptors in gene transfer in vivo, both to rid the vectors of their native tropism and to introduce new specificity. CAR and alphav integrins have been identified as the primary cell surface components that interact with adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-based(More)
Modification of adenovirus to achieve tissue specific targeting for the delivery of therapeutic genes requires both the ablation of its native tropism and the introduction of specific, novel interactions. Inactivation of the native receptor interactions, however, would cripple the virus for growth in production cells. We have developed an alternative(More)
CD20 is an antigen expressed on normal and malignant human B cells that is thought to function as a receptor during B cell activation. Here we report the isolation of a CD20-specific cDNA clone from a lambda gt11 library using a polyclonal antiserum raised against purified CD20 antigen. Additional cDNA clones were then isolated from a lambda gt10 library.(More)
Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne alphavirus, recently caused the largest epidemic ever seen for this virus. Chikungunya disease primarily manifests as a painful and debilitating arthralgia/arthritis, and no effective drug or vaccine is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant chikungunya virus vaccine comprising a non-replicating complex(More)
To create tumor-targeted Ad vectors, ablation of native CAR and integrin receptor binding is crucial to enhance the specificity of tumor transduction. Toward this aim, we have previously created base vectors in which binding to CAR (single-ablated) or to both CAR and integrins (double-ablated) has been ablated. In this study, the biodistribution of the(More)
Adenovirus-based vectors can efficiently transfer therapeutic genes into cells through an entry process that is initiated be binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The receptors for the most commonly used Ad vectors include both the Coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and omega-integrins. Therapeutic applications of AD vectors could be(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is characterized by the rapid onset of intestinal T-cell depletion that initiates the progression to AIDS. The induction of protective immunity in the intestinal mucosa therefore represents a potentially desirable feature of a preventive AIDS vaccine. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of an(More)
Effective vaccines for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will likely need to stimulate protective immunity in the intestinal mucosa, where HIV-1 infection causes severe CD4(+) T-cell depletion. While replication-competent recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors can stimulate adenovirus-specific mucosal immunity after replication, oral delivery of(More)