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The cornified envelope is a layer of transglutaminase cross-linked protein that is assembled under the plasma membrane of keratinocytes in the outermost layers of the epidermis. We have determined the cDNA sequence of one of the proteins that becomes incorporated into the cornified envelope of cultured epidermal keratinocytes, a protein with an apparent(More)
We characterized the sequence and protein interactions of cingulin, an M(r) 140-160-kD phosphoprotein localized on the cytoplasmic surface of epithelial tight junctions (TJ). The derived amino acid sequence of a full-length Xenopus laevis cingulin cDNA shows globular head (residues 1-439) and tail (1,326-1,368) domains and a central alpha-helical rod domain(More)
alpha-Helical coiled coils are remarkable for the diversity of related conformations that they adopt in both fibrous and globular proteins, and for the range of functions that they exhibit. The coiled coils are based on a heptad (7-residue), hendecad (11-residue) or a related quasi-repeat of apolar residues in the sequences of the alpha-helical regions(More)
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are vital sensory and motile organelles. The calcium channel PKD2 mediates sensory perception on cilia and flagella, and defects in this can contribute to ciliopathic diseases. Signaling from Pkd2-dependent Ca²+ rise in the cilium to downstream effectors may require intermediary proteins that are largely unknown. To identify(More)
The conformation adopted by intermediate filament chains (IF) has been described in terms of a central rod domain with four, alpha-helical, left-handed coiled-coil segments (1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B) joined by linkers (L1, L12, and L2, respectively). The rod domain is terminated at its N- and C-terminal ends by "globular" head and tail domains, respectively. This(More)
Keratins are intermediate filament-forming proteins that provide mechanical support and fulfill a variety of additional functions in epithelial cells. In 1982, a nomenclature was devised to name the keratin proteins that were known at that point. The systematic sequencing of the human genome in recent years uncovered the existence of several novel keratin(More)
The plakins (also referred to as cytolinkers) are a family of large, modular proteins that link cytoskeletal networks to each other and to membrane-associated adhesive junctions, such as desmosomes and hemidesmosomes. Mutations in plakin family genes lead to defects in tissue integrity and function in skin, muscle and the nervous system in human and in(More)
Members of the spectrin superfamily of proteins contain different numbers of homologous repeats arranged in tandem. Each of these consists of a three-alpha-helix motif, comprising two similarly and one oppositely directed alpha-helical segment joined by nonhelical linkers of characteristic length. The right-handed alpha-helices each display a heptad repeat(More)
Intermediate filaments (IF) have been recognized as ubiquitous components of the cytoskeletons of eukaryotic cells for 25 yr. Historically, the first IF proteins to be characterized were those from wool in the 1960s, when they were defined as low sulfur keratins derived from "microfibrils." These proteins are now known as the type Ia/type IIa trichocyte(More)