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1 This study utilizes regression discontinuity to examine the long-run impacts of the mita, an extensive forced mining labor system in effect in Peru and Bolivia between 1573 and 1812. Results indicate that a mita effect lowers household consumption by around 25% and increases the prevalence of stunted growth in children by around 6 percentage points in(More)
UNLABELLED Validity and reliability relate to the interpretation of scores from psychometric instruments (eg, symptom scales, questionnaires, education tests, and observer ratings) used in clinical practice, research, education, and administration. Emerging paradigms replace prior distinctions of face, content, and criterion validity with the unitary(More)
In emerging markets, external debt is denominated almost entirely in large, developed country currencies such as the U.S. dollar. This liability dollarization offers a channel through which exchange rate variation can lead to business cycle instability. When firms' assets are denominated in domestic currency and liabilities are denomi-nated in foreign(More)
CONTEXT Methodological shortcomings in medical education research are often attributed to insufficient funding, yet an association between funding and study quality has not been established. OBJECTIVES To develop and evaluate an instrument for measuring the quality of education research studies and to assess the relationship between funding and study(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a mastery learning, simulation-based curriculum for laparoscopic, totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. BACKGROUND Clinically relevant benefits from improvements in operative performance, time, and errors after simulation-based training are not clearly established. METHODS After performing a baseline TEP in the OR,(More)
OBJECTIVES To summarize current available data on simulation-based training in resuscitation for health care professionals. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus and reference lists of published reviews. STUDY SELECTION Published studies of any language or date that enrolled health professions' learners to(More)
UNLABELLED The mini-CEX is widely used to rate directly observed resident-patient encounters. Although several studies have explored the reliability of mini-CEX scores, the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE explore the dimensionality of mini-CEX scores through factor analysis and generalizability analysis. DESIGN(More)
This paper provides a quantitative investigation of the East Asian crisis of 1997-99. The two essential features of the crisis that we focus on are a) the crisis was a regional phenomenon; the depth and severity of the crisis was exacerbated by a large decline in regional demand, and b) the practice of setting export goods prices in dollars (which we(More)
CONTEXT The increasing use of Internet-based learning in health professions education may be informed by a timely, comprehensive synthesis of evidence of effectiveness. OBJECTIVES To summarize the effect of Internet-based instruction for health professions learners compared with no intervention and with non-Internet interventions. DATA SOURCES(More)
OBJECTIVE Summarize the outcomes and best practices of simulation training for laparoscopic surgery. BACKGROUND Simulation-based training for laparoscopic surgery has become a mainstay of surgical training. Much new evidence has accrued since previous reviews were published. METHODS We systematically searched the literature through May 2011 for studies(More)