David A. Clifton

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Novelty detection is the task of classifying test data that differ in some respect from the data that are available during training. This may be seen as “one-class classification”, in which a model is constructed to describe “normal” training data. The novelty detection approach is typically used when the quantity of available “abnormal” data is(More)
The ability to determine patient acuity (or severity of illness) has immediate practical use for clinicians. We evaluate the use of multivariate timeseries modeling with the multi-task Gaussian process (GP) models using noisy, incomplete, sparse, heterogeneous and unevenly-sampled clinical data, including both physiological signals and clinical notes. The(More)
Novelty detection, or one-class classification, aims to determine if data are “normal” with respect to some model of normality constructed using examples of normal system behaviour. If that model is composed of generative probability distributions, the extent of “normality” in the data space can be described using Extreme Value Theory (EVT), a branch of(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosing drug-resistance remains an obstacle to the elimination of tuberculosis. Phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing is slow and expensive, and commercial genotypic assays screen only common resistance-determining mutations. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterise common and rare mutations predicting drug resistance, or consistency(More)
Gaussian process (GP) models are a flexible means of performing nonparametric Bayesian regression. However, GP models in healthcare are often only used to model a single univariate output time series, denoted as single-task GPs (STGP). Due to an increasing prevalence of sensors in healthcare settings, there is an urgent need for robust multivariate(More)
Healthcare information, and to some extent patient management, is progressing toward a wireless digital future. This change is driven partly by a desire to improve the current state of medicine using new technologies, partly by supply-and-demand economics, and partly by the utility of wireless devices. Wired technology can be cumbersome for patient(More)
The majority of patients in the hospital are ambulatory and would benefit significantly from predictive and personalized monitoring systems. Such patients are well suited to having their physiological condition monitored using low-power, minimally intrusive wearable sensors. Despite data-collection systems now being manufactured commercially, allowing(More)
Advances in wearable sensing and communications infrastructure have allowed the widespread development of prototype medical devices for patient monitoring. However, such devices have not penetrated into clinical practice, primarily due to a lack of research into "intelligent" analysis methods that are sufficiently robust to support large-scale deployment.(More)
BACKGROUND We have developed an automated algorithm to allow the measurement of respiratory rate directly from the photoplethysmogram (pulse oximeter waveform). AIM To test the algorithm's ability to determine respiratory rate in children. METHODS A convenience sample of patients attending a paediatric Accident and Emergency Department was monitored(More)
Patients who undergo upper-gastrointestinal surgery have a high incidence of post-operative complications, often requiring admission to the intensive care unit several days after surgery. A dataset comprising observational vital-sign data from 171 post-operative patients taking part in a two-phase clinical trial at the Oxford Cancer Centre, was used to(More)