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Novelty detection is the task of classifying test data that differ in some respect from the data that are available during training. This may be seen as " one-class classification " , in which a model is constructed to describe " normal " training data. The novelty detection approach is typically used when the quantity of available " abnormal " data is(More)
The ability to determine patient acuity (or severity of illness) has immediate practical use for clinicians. We evaluate the use of multivariate timeseries modeling with the multi-task Gaussian process (GP) models using noisy, incomplete, sparse, heterogeneous and unevenly-sampled clinical data, including both physiological signals and clinical notes. The(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosing drug-resistance remains an obstacle to the elimination of tuberculosis. Phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing is slow and expensive, and commercial genotypic assays screen only common resistance-determining mutations. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterise common and rare mutations predicting drug resistance, or consistency(More)
The identification of invalid data in recordings obtained using wearable sensors is of particular importance since data obtained from mobile patients is, in general, noisier than data obtained from nonmobile patients. In this paper, we present a signal quality index (SQI), which is intended to assess whether reliable heart rates (HRs) can be obtained from(More)
We introduce an extreme function theory as a novel method by which probabilistic novelty detection may be performed with functions, where the functions are represented by time-series of (potentially multivariate) discrete observations. We set the method within the framework of Gaussian processes (GP), which offers a convenient means of constructing a(More)
Gaussian process (GP) models are a flexible means of performing nonparametric Bayesian regression. However, GP models in healthcare are often only used to model a single univariate output time series, denoted as single-task GPs (STGP). Due to an increasing prevalence of sensors in healthcare settings, there is an urgent need for robust multivariate(More)
—Novelty detection, or one-class classification, is of particular use in the analysis of high-integrity systems, in which examples of failure are rare in comparison with the number of examples of stable behaviour, such that a conventional multi-class classification approach cannot be taken. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a popular means of performing(More)
Novelty detection, or one-class classification, aims to determine if data are " normal " with respect to some model of normality constructed using examples of normal system behaviour. If that model is composed of generative probability distributions, the extent of " normality " in the data space can be described using Extreme Value Theory (EVT), a branch of(More)
The majority of patients in the hospital are ambulatory and would benefit significantly from predictive and personalized monitoring systems. Such patients are well suited to having their physiological condition monitored using low-power, minimally intrusive wearable sensors. Despite data-collection systems now being manufactured commercially, allowing(More)