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A three-stage schema-based information processing model of anxiety is described that involves: (a) the initial registration of a threat stimulus; (b) the activation of a primal threat mode; and (c) the secondary activation of more elaborative and reflective modes of thinking. The defining elements of automatic and strategic processing are discussed with the(More)
This paper describes recent developments in the cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Although behavioral treatment of OCD consisting of exposure and response prevention (ERP) has been shown to be clinically effective, certain limitations with ERP have led clinical researchers to propose that treatment should be(More)
There has been considerable research interest into the sol-ubility phase transition, and its eeect on search cost for backtracking algorithms. In this paper we show that a similar easy-hard-easy pattern occurs for local search, with search cost peaking at the phase transition. This is despite problems beyond the phase transition having fewer solutions ,(More)
In this review paper a modified cognitive neurophysiological model of Aaron T. Beck's cognitive formulation of anxiety and depression is proposed that provides an elaborated account of the cognitive and neural mediational processes of cognitive therapy (CT). Empirical evidence consistent with this model is discussed that indicates the effectiveness of(More)
Concentration changes of nitric oxide (NO) were monitored using an NO-sensitive electrode in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with either free oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) or red blood cells (RBCs). In aerated PBS, the half-life of 0.9 microM NO is greater than 4 min. NO is undetectable (<50 nM) when added to a solution of oxyHb because the reaction of NO with(More)
Whether maternal immune effector mechanisms with the exception of anti-phospholipid antibodies cause pregnancy loss, and whether effective treatment is possible are subjects of controversy. Hence, in this study the current literature was searched and critically reviewed. In both animals and humans, similar immune effector mechanisms are linked to pregnancy(More)
Nitric oxide synthesis appears to be elevated in inflammatory bowel disease, but little is known about the contribution of nitric oxide to the pathophysiological process. To address this issue, we included the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in the drinking water (10 or 100 micrograms/ml) of guinea pigs immediately(More)
Thirty-seven patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) were seen between 1966 and 1982. Ten patients had accompanying diseases described in association with PRCA, while the remainder had primary PRCA. All but two patients were treated with some form of immune manipulation, including corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs, antithymocyte globulin, splenectomy,(More)
In this study, we examined the effect of injecting various cytokines. We report here that tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, gamma-interferon and interleukin 2 (IL-2) can, in some circumstances, increase fetal resorption rates in abortion-prone (CBA/J x DBA/2) and non-abortion prone (CBA/J x BALB/c,C3H x DBA/2) matings: 1000 units TNF enhanced resorptions(More)