Learn More
Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer(More)
BACKGROUND The cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) maintain cation homeostasis essential for a wide range of physiological processes in plant cells. However, the precise subcellular locations and trafficking of these membrane proteins are poorly understood. This is further complicated by a general deficiency of information about targeting pathways(More)
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) oxidizes, reduces, and isomerizes disulfide bonds, modulates redox responses, and chaperones proteins. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains 12 PDI genes, but little is known about their subcellular locations and functions. We demonstrate that PDI5 is expressed in endothelial cells about to undergo programmed cell death(More)
The purpose of this article is to review the suitability of the analytical and statistical techniques that have thus far been developed to assess the dissolution behavior of particles in the respirable aerodynamic size range, as generated by orally inhaled products (OIPs) such as metered-dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers. The review encompasses all(More)
This article is part of a series of reports from the “Orlando Inhalation Conference-Approaches in International Regulation” which was held in March 2014, and coorganized by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The goal of the conference was to foster the exchange of ideas and(More)
The purpose of this article is to catalogue in a systematic way the available information about factors that may influence the outcome and variability of cascade impactor (CI) measurements of pharmaceutical aerosols for inhalation, such as those obtained from metered dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or products for nebulization; and to(More)
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play critical roles in protein folding by catalyzing the formation and rearrangement of disulfide bonds in nascent secretory proteins. There are six distinct PDI subfamilies in terrestrial plants. A unique feature of PDI-C subfamily members is their homology to the yeast retrograde (Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum) cargo(More)
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a') and two non-catalytic domains (b, b'), in the order a-b-b'-a'. The model plant,(More)
The use of promoters for downstream metabolic engineering in plants requires efficiently screening their transcriptional strength and the resulting levels of the desired metabolite. Carica papaya is a complex slow-growing tropical tree, which is difficult to rapidly screen for promoter activity. Therefore, we used the simple model system, Arabidopsis(More)