David A. Bird

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The ABC superfamily comprises both membrane-bound transporters and soluble proteins involved in a broad range of processes, many of which are of considerable agricultural, biotechnological and medical potential. Completion of the Arabidopsis and rice genome sequences has revealed a particularly large and diverse complement of plant ABC proteins in(More)
Acyl lipids in Arabidopsis and all other plants have a myriad of diverse functions. These include providing the core diffusion barrier of the membranes that separates cells and subcellular organelles. This function alone involves more than 10 membrane lipid classes, including the phospholipids, galactolipids, and sphingolipids, and within each class the(More)
ABCG11/WBC11, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana, is a key component of the export pathway for cuticular lipids. Arabidopsis wbc11 T-DNA insertional knock-out mutants exhibited lipidic inclusions inside epidermal cells similar to the previously characterized wax transporter mutant cer5, with a similar strong reduction in the(More)
Most aerial surfaces of plants are covered by cuticular wax that is synthesized in epidermal cells. The wax mixture on the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is dominated by alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones, all thought to be formed sequentially in the decarbonylation pathway of wax biosynthesis. Here, we used a(More)
Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C(16) and C(18)) or very-long-chain (C(20) and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In(More)
Plant epidermal cells dedicate more than half of their lipid metabolism to the synthesis of cuticular lipids, which seal and protect the plant shoot. The cuticle is made up of a cutin polymer and waxes, diverse hydrophobic compounds including very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives. How such hydrophobic compounds are exported to the cuticle,(More)
Three key benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic enzymes, (S)-N-methylcoclaurine-3'-hydroxylase (CYP80B1), berberine bridge enzyme (BBE), and codeinone reductase (COR), were localized in cultured opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cells by sucrose density gradient fractionation and immunogold labeling. CYP80B1 catalyzes the second to last step in the(More)
The effect of altering the conditions of transformation on the efficiency of gene targeting in filamentous fungi was studied using Aspergillus nidulans as a model organism. The niaD and amdS genes of A. nidulans, which are both involved in nitrogen source utilisation, were selected as target loci. Homologous recombination of transforming DNA at these loci(More)
ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters play diverse roles, including lipid transport, in all kingdoms. ABCG subfamily transporters that are encoded as half-transporters require dimerization to form a functional ABC transporter. Different dimer combinations that may transport diverse substrates have been predicted from mutant phenotypes. In Arabidopsis(More)